IV. Energy versus information

I. Introduction

Journal of Nonlocality and Remote Mental Interactions, Vol. I Nr. 2, May 2002

Control systems, transduction arrays and psi healing: an experimental basis

for human potential science

Lian Sidorov

"Cancer cells were not locked irretrievably into the

malignant state; in the presence of embryonic

control systems, they could return to normal"

Robert O. Becker, Cross Currents

"One really should start thinking in terms of

biomind receptors, rather than in terms of ESP"

Ingo Swann, "Trending away from

the Parapsychology Paradigm"

Abstract: Based on the biophysical models of Becker, Popp and Gariaev, the present paper

makes the argument that the study of exceptional human abilities such as self-healing and

anomalous cognition (AC) should focus on biophoton emissions and conformational changes of

biomolecules under the influence of focused intent. The central hypothesis is that practices such

as qigong and yoga induce long-term structural and physiological changes in the body's

semiconducting liquid crystal matrix, which maintain the system in a higher-than-average state of

coherence, hence optimizing energy utilization (Bigu), sensitivity (AC, tohate) and regulatory DC

current feedback loops which in turn control the expression of DNA and the "tuning" of sensory t

ransduction arrays.

A comprehensive model of non-local mental interactions (Pitkanen's TGD) is also discussed

within this theoretical framework, especially with respect to biophotons as a signature of

macroscopic entanglement. Finally, a number of psychophysiological experimental approaches

are described as an alternative to current directions in CAM and parapsychology studies.

The great allure of reductionist approaches is that they yield definite answers: piecemeal

questions lead to clear-cut piecemeal results, which can then be easily incorporated into a

great edifice of practical applications. Thus science grows like a 3-dimensional jigsaw puzzle,

spurred on by the need to "fill holes in our knowledge" and supported by the authority of

neighboring, complementary pieces.

The trouble with this distinguished method is that - well, simply put, pieces which don't "fit" are

simply discarded. This has traditionally been the fate of experimental evidence emerging from

parapsychology, radionics, energy medicine, qigong and other such "fringe" disciplines. While

the past few decades have seen a slight improvement in the establishment's recognition of these

fields of study, they are still treated as a collection of quirky, esoteric, essentially irrelevant

phenomena. Conceding their existence is as far as most scientists would go. Token funding of

their study by official institutions seems most often more a matter of political correctness than of

conviction; and finally, speaking even more loudly than the scarcity of resources and support, is

the almost complete absence of attempts at integration with mainstream science. While qualified

theoreticians are not lacking (see Savva 2000) finding institutions willing to support experimental

work in these fields is a different matter (Lin & Chen; Savva 2000). Complicating the situation is

the fact the tools of psi investigation have remained relatively unchanged over the past several

decades, and that restricts any possible conclusions to rather vague phenomenological statements

about the functions of Mind. But if we are ever to understand what Mind is and how it interacts

with physical reality, we have to go beyond such observations, into the realm of physics and

physiology. For that, we have to use the tools of biomedical research - and that is where we face

our greatest challenges and opportunities.

Molecular biology is the prodigal, wildly successful offspring of a technological boom which has

delivered countless diagnostic and therapeutic formulas into our hands. However, the same

approach has also notoriously failed to produce a solution to two of the century's greatest

scourges: cancer and HIV (see Gariaev & al. in this issue). In parallel with this, cognitive science

has also reached a point of "crisis" (Ho 1997), where increasingly sophisticated brain imaging

techniques have proliferated without providing any significant clues about the questions of memory,

binding or free will.

A few prominent voices have courageously risen up over the past several decades, to argue in

favor of a subtler, more complex approach to biosystems' control mechanisms - one based not

on chemical interactions and classical statistics, but on physical concepts such as fields, non-linear

dynamics and, more recently, quantum coherence and entanglement. Those pursuing such lines

of thought are pioneers in their own fields: to extend these preliminary results to the subject areas

of parapsychology and mind-body medicine may seem a stretch under the best of circumstances:

yet in this author's humble opinion nothing seems to offer more opportunities for progress than the

convergence of experimental approaches in these (seemingly unrelated) areas of research. It is the

purpose of this article to demonstrate why, as well as to sketch some general directions available

for future studies. In so doing, I also hope to underscore the significance for biomedical sciences

of an alternative paradigm championed since the '50s by figureheads such as H. Frohlich, Robert

O. Becker and Mae-Wan Ho.

II The salamander's tale

In a prior, "first-thoughts" essay discussing the presence of Schumann frequencies in the

EEG during various healing practices we had proposed that mental intent might function as a

variable window of transmission/ reception in the exchange of extrasensory information, which

tuned into the Schumann resonance to carry such bio-regulating information to distant targets

and acted as a primitive, radar-type sensory interface (Sidorov 2001). However, pursuing this

line of thought soon lead to the landmark experiments of Robert Becker - who, it became evident,

had not only reached somewhat similar conclusions based on his own body of evidence, but had

gone beyond them to suggest that such subtle currents could reach far deeper into our genetic and

consciousness control mechanisms.

After nearly eight decades of EEG and other brain imaging studies , it is sobering to realize that

we still can't tell with certainty where EEG voltages come from (Becker 1985, pp 88). The

general consensus is that they must arise from the simultaneous firing of large numbers of neurons,

but that has never been proven. On the other hand, evidence accumulating since the 1940s

(through the efforts of such luminaries as mathematician John von Neumann and neurophysiologists

like Wilder Penfield and Walter Cannon) points to the idea that the brain works by a combination

of analog and digital coding, where the firing (sensitivity) of neurons (fast, digital information

transmission) is modulated by the background, low voltage DC potential (analog) which reflects

higher-order cognitive processes such as state of wakefulness, memory recall, thought, emotion

and so forth. (ibid., pp 89). DC potentials (measured in microvolts) have been recorded by

Goldring and O'Leary from the human scalp, from the exposed brain during surgery, and from

the brains of monkeys and rabbits. In all vertebrates a midline head potential was found, flowing

from the back to the front, and apparently originating from the reticular activating system. It was

shown that applying small external negative voltages to neurons increased their sensitivity, while

positive potentials had the opposite effect (ibid., pp 89).

DC potentials, however, are not restricted to the brain: Becker tested a wide range of

organisms (from flatworms to fish, reptiles, mammals and humans) and found that the

potentials measured on the skin reflected the arrangement of the nervous system, with a strong

positive potential in the head and neck area, which decreased and became gradually negative

as one moved toward the extremities. (Interestingly enough, this parallels the distribution found

along nerve cells, where the positive end is the dendritic input area, with the potential becoming

negative at the axon).

The most significant observation about this somatic DC field, however, is that it correlates in

very specific ways with physiological states and processes: using salamanders for test subjects,

Becker found that under anesthesia, their peripheral voltages dropped to zero, and even

reversed in very deep stages, with the tail and limbs becoming positive; negative potentials in the

frontal brain area also tended to shift toward the positive during rest and sleep. By applying very

small currents through the salamander's head (in the opposite direction to its normal

occipito-frontal flow), he managed to record deeper and deeper levels of anesthesia (as given by

the amplitude of EEG delta waves, which correlated with the animal's periods of unresponsiveness).

Even more spectacular was his ability to partially reverse chemical anesthesia by passing a

current in the normal direction: although the salamander did not regain full ability to start moving,

the level of sedation did become shallower, and the EEG recorded a return to higher-frequency

waves. (ibid., pp111). Similar correlations were later found in humans (Becker 1990, pp 91),

where hypnotized subjects demonstrated that they could decrease or increase the DC potential

of specific areas of the body depending on the suggestion given (a suggestion of numbness in the

right arm resulted in no response to a pinprick stimulus and a drop to zero in the DC potential,

while the pinprick response/DC potential remained almost unchanged for the left arm; the change

in voltage was "exactly the same as that seen in standard chemical nerve block". )

In addition to brain potentials, Becker studied the change in voltage associated with areas of

injury in frogs and salamanders, and without exception found that the polarity at the amputated

stump reversed from negative to positive right after the injury, returning to normal over a period

of approximately three weeks. However, while the frogs' potential dropped steadily as their

stumps healed over with skin and scar tissue, the salamanders' regenerative process (in particular

the appearance of the blastema) was accompanied by a sharp negative potential, exceeding the

baseline value. The salamander's ability to evoke this unusual negative voltage seemed to correlate

in an important manner with its regenerative potential.

It was known as early as 1958 that applying a small, polarity-enhancing external current to

an injured plant increased its regeneration rate by as much as 300% (Becker 1985, pp61). In

1961, Becker and his team found that negative electrodes applied directly to the marrow cavity

of dogs' thighbones had stimulated considerable amounts of bone growth, compared to controls.

But nothing prepared them for the momentousness of their next discovery: following up on

preliminary experiments done by German researchers in the 1920s, they found that applying

a very weak current (in the order of a billionth of an ampere) to a culture of nucleated

frog red blood cells induced complete dedifferentiation in the cells, which reactivated

their nuclei, lost all hemoglobin and became primitive (unspecialized) in the space of

four hours (ibid., p143). These changes, which were later found in the RBCs of fish and

other reptiles, suggested a reactivation of the DNA - for once the staining characteristics of the

nucleus shifted, the process continued even if the current was interrupted. All the changes

involved paralleled those found in the salamander limb blastemas, demonstrating that the process

of regeneration was initiated by the current of injury. Applying this knowledge to wound healing

in mammals, in 1971 Becker's team stimulated the bone marrow of rats' amputated forelegs with

a 1 nanoampere current and managed to obtain partial regeneration of the limb, including new,

well organized bone, cartilage, muscle, blood and nerve tissue: at least ten types of cells had

differentiated from the blastema, and some specimens even demonstrated the rudiments of

finger cartilage. (ibid., pp 153) These results indicate, first of all, that mammals still have the

machinery to read out their genetic instructions and regenerate lost parts, although that potential

seems to be limited by the scarcity of immature red corpuscles in the bone marrow. Secondly,

the fact that no dedifferentiated cells are left when the regeneration is complete suggests a finely

tuned feedback mechanism between the dedifferentiation and redifferentiation mechanisms,

analogous to the balance between cell mitosis and death in normal cell turn-over. ( We will see

later on that these observations, and others like them, are best addressed in the context of a new

paradigm of genetic control mechanisms.)

Beyond the exhilarating prospect of organ and nerve regeneration (which Becker explores at

length in his book), the observation that mature cells can dedifferentiate and redifferentiate

opens up what is perhaps the most extraordinary possibility yet: a mechanism for understanding

otherwise inexplicable healing accounts, such as "spontaneous" cancer remission.

Observing that three major characteristics of malignant cells (cell simplicity, mitotic speed and

metabolic priority) were also typical of embryonic growth and regeneration, in 1948 Meryl Rose

conducted a landmark experiment designed to test whether the physiological environment of

regeneration could take over the controls of tumor cells. After transplanting pieces of frog kidney

tumor to the limbs of salamanders and watching them grow, he amputated the leg just below or,

in some cases, right through the tumor mass. As opposed to controls, where the tumor metastasized

and ended up killing the host, these specimens demonstrated a remarkable phenomenon: the tumor

cells dedifferentiated more fully as the blastema formed, then redifferentiated along with the blastema

- thus proving a monumentally important point: "the regeneration's guidance system could control

cancer, too" (Becker 1985, pp 217). Furthermore, replicating experiments conducted in

1962-1963 by F. Seilern-Aspang and K. Kratochwil at the Austrian Cancer Institute showed that,

in cases where the primary tumor was in the tail, amputation of the tail below that level (i.e. leaving

the primary tumor intact) resulted in total disappearance of both the primary mass and all its

distant metastases as the tail regenerated (ibid., pp220) - thus complete healing of two

aetiologically-distinct injuries (incidentally, a claim not uncommonly found in the alternative

healing literature). Although this result was obtained only when the amputation was close to the site

of the primary tumor, it demonstrated beyond doubt that the key to such "spontaneous regression"

was a shift in the tumor's immediate environment - most probably the electrical currents in the

neuro-epidermal junction, which Becker had proven were the initiators of regeneration.

What is the nature of this "analog system" which preoccupied Becker for over three decades?

By demonstrating the Hall effect in the leg of a salamander as it regained consciousness

(ibid., pp101), Becker showed that this DC potential was a semiconductor current - in other

words, that the carrier were electrons in a semiconducting lattice. But to admit the existence of

a semiconductor current permeating and regulating the brain-body continuum, one must be ready

to look for an appropriate substrate. Semiconduction requires an ordered molecular structure,

such as crystals, in which electrons can exist in a delocalized fashion and flow coherently across l

large distances with minimal dissipation of energy - a very different model from the type of

conduction associated with neurons. In the wet, warm, perpetually-fluctuating environment which

is the living organism, what could possibly constitute a proper matrix for this type of phenomenon?


III The challenge of Perception

If the preceding discussion was intended to gently destabilize our dogmatic faith in the

completeness of the molecular biology approach to healing, opening the door to alternative models,

when we come to the question of anomalous cognition conventional science has practically nothing

to offer as a possible mechanism: the classical approaches seem to have hit an impasse which

closely parallels the impasse of neurocognitive science in general. That is, most psychophysiological

approaches to altered states of consciousness and anomalous cognition have centered on brain

imaging studies, which have yielded a catalog of "brain activation areas" as diverse and

inconclusive as the particle-zoo of our preliminary forays into quantum physics. The EEG appears

to be a very noisy, chaotic, unstable display of the brain's functional state: patterns of brain activity

are simply unrepeatable, concludes well known neurophysiologist Walter Freeman (Ho, 1996).

Although gross correlations between general cognitive states and EEG shifts have been found, it is

becoming increasingly questionable whether such studies will ever be able to provide the detailed

map we had once hoped for. At the same time, the interplay between body DC potentials and

brain activity demonstrated by Becker raises the question of a "full body consciousness" - a spectrum

of subtle somatic changes which may well play a critical role in "gating" and regulating cognitive

functions, including altered states of consciousness and anomalous cognition. For this reason, we

would like to propose temporarily shifting our attention from the study of EEG maps in order to

consider other possible physiological parameters of cognitive functions.

In a series of essays on the human potential, Ingo Swann repeatedly argues that the West has

misunderstood and needlessly mystified the nature of subtle perception abilities: by coining the

term "extrasensory perception" we have drawn a forbidding line which by its very definition

prevents us from studying phenomena like Remote Viewing (RV) and Distant Mental Interactions

with Living Systems (DMILS) in the context of physical science. Yet, he insists, ancient texts such

as Patanjali's Yoga Sutras make it clear that those who had indeed mastered these skills through

advanced meditation techniques regarded them as part of man's natural spectrum of senses: what

is "subtle" is not their substrate (which we erroneously tend to believe in this day and age) but the

application of focus, or attention, on the perceptual apparatus processing this information. As the

"father" of modern remote viewing, Swann is in a unique position to share his insights from a

position of experience and authority - therefore it is worth spending the next few paragraphs

to review some of his conclusions.

Swann introduces the terms "sensory transducer array" to denote the hardware of our sensory

apparatus (understood to be the physical matrix of both common and exceptional human senses)

and "mental information processing grids" to refer to the software programs processing the raw

data (Swann 1996a). His main proposal is that we have an "inherent hard drive [ability]

TO CONSTRUCT an enormous variety of sensory transducers" - however, these transducers

are constructed only through repeated exposure and cognitive processing of the signals. In other

words, we have a choice in the way we "format" these information processing grids, which results

in the reinforcement of some pathways and the near-breakdown of others. (Note: this is true of

normal sensory pathways too - see Rivlin & Gravelle on the post-natal development of vision in

kittens and human babies). This formatting is a function of evolutionary forces (survival skills

emphasizing some senses at the expense of others), as well as social pressures (senses which

appear "scientifically impossible" being stigmatized by ridicule and/or irrelevance, thus forced into

disuse). Information still trickles from these innate perceptual systems, but it is now qualified as

feelings, intuition, impressions - in essence, mental processes we consider to be non-factual,

imaginary, or based on a very low signal:noise ratio. By definition we do not weigh these equally

with factual sense-data in our decision making processes - unless we are trained to recognize

them as sense-data. Coordinate remote viewing is precisely such a form of training - "an exercise

in formatting specialized sensory transducers" (1996b) by the interplay of repeated exposure and

feedback, in order to strengthen one's recognition of subtle and implicit relationships (1997b).

Swann further argues that there is a vast difference between message and its structure, or format

- in other words, that the "mental image" put together by an experienced viewer or "psychic" is most

often not "seen" as such, but constructed from implicit relationships of subtle impressions which he

or she has learned to organize based on repeated feedback (1997b). This organization is intimately

related to the notion of signal:noise ratio, with misconceptions, fear and other "social luggage"

providing a considerable source of noise. The other major source of processing noise is language

itself, which is THE main conceptualization/ meaning-assigning grid: if a given experience cannot

be assigned a recognized term, chances are it will be discarded - hence the loss of information

(Swann 1997b, 1996c). (Note: additional sources of noise, according to Braud, are

"exteroceptive stimulation, skeletal muscle activity, excessive autonomic activity, various kinds

of cognitive activity, excessive effort to succeed at the task, distracting imagery and mentation".

Krippner S and George L., pp 353)

Sensory transducers are mechanisms which convert various forms of input energy to another

form which can be used by the organism's sensory systems. The typical example is speech, where

sonic vibrations are converted to electromagnetic signals which activate certain brain areas

responsible for speech recognition, memory and meaning integration. It is only after this step

that the original signal acquires its meaning and is recognized as such. An even more dramatic

example is vision, which can be broken down into up to 10 steps (Swann 1997a, Rivlin &

Gravelle): step 1 begins when the interference patterns of light bouncing off of objects are picked

up by the visible light sensitive elements (rods and cones) of the retina. This input is converted

into chemical energy, then back into electromagnetic signals which are subsequently transmitted

via a complex system of relay cells to the visual cortex. Because visual processing cells are

sensitive only to specific features (e.g. lines at various angles, moving bars, specific primary colors,

parts of the right or left visual field, etc) the visual cortex is the place where the integration of all

these disparate elements fed by thousands of neural firing patterns occurs, and a "map"

representing the visualized target is reconstituted - only to be subsequently compared with

internal representations stored in memory. As matches, or partial matches to these elements,

are found, recognition takes place, leading to step 10 - the "mental image picture". However,

if the match is insufficient, the mental picture fails to form, and we are left with mere

"impressions". As we shall see below, this is particularly relevant to understanding remote

viewing, because of a phenomenon called analytic overlay.

In Swann's model, the "biomind" consists of "a system of arrays of sensory receptors followed

by arrays of sensory information transducers, and then by arrays of meaning transducers" (1996b).

Swann believes that, since everything we "perceive" is recognized as such only against memory

storage, a vast field of natural information sources has become virtually inaccessible to us simply

because we have historically failed to reinforce their required processing pathways: these, however,

do not simply concern step 10 (meaning integration) but, very significantly for our discussion, they

span the entire transduction chain from primary reception to conscious recognition. Unfortunately,

the remainder of the discussion is focused on meaning transducers and offers little guidance

regarding the possible nature of the lower level formatting.

This brief overview of Swann's provocative ideas is very important for two reasons: first,

because it refocuses our attention from immaterial philosophical speculations on the nature of

"extrasensory perception" to a concrete approach making use of tangible models; secondly,

because these models force us to ask some interesting questions about exactly what it is that

we perceive during remote viewing.

It is commonly believed that, in the cases where a remote viewing session is judged to have

failed, the problem consisted of an inability to locate the target. In fact, (see 3; McMoneagle 1997

pp63, 66, 88, 108, 196, 200; McMoneagle 2000 pp 207-8) some of the most experienced

professionals in this field now believe that the error more commonly lies with a misinterpretation

of the preliminary impressions, which tricks the mind into pursuing further impressions which

reinforce this cognitive basin, while discarding others which seem to be incompatible. For this

reason, it is strongly emphasized from the very beginning of RV training that impressions be

given in a descriptive and non-analytic format. The difficulty of this problem is twofold: first, the

mind is highly trained in making inferences and filling in missing data (Rivlin & Gravelle pp 136)

which has definite evolutionary advantages, but can also "create" false information. Secondly, it is

known that imagination interferes with perception in the same modality (LaBerge 1990). It is

therefore almost impossible to distinguish between actual perception and cognitive fill-in (analytic

overlay) on a subjective basis: in the "ganzfeld" environment of RV they both "feel" the same!

Whatever the primary receptors of remote perception may be, the final (conscious) stage of

input integration seems to be the same.

The question of primary receptors for RV is, of course, THE great question of parapsychology.

But there is one other intriguing observation to be made regarding "normal" versus remote

viewing: the way in which perceptual data is reported in the typical RV experiment bears

a strange resemblance to the specialized visual neural processing described above: for

instance, the target is often perceived at the wrong scale or orientation (see Houck; McMoneagle

1997 pp47-54, 85, 92, 94, 192; Dong & Raffill pp 155-6); the right color may be associated

with the wrong shape, or vice-versa; finally, some people only remote-view in black-and-white,

while some view in full color (Jimmy Williams "Discussion on RV) (This latter observation

provides an interesting point given its parallels to dreaming - perhaps in some people only

rod-associated neurons can be activated by indirect stimulation such as imagery or, as we shall

see in section VI, by entanglement-triggered magnetic sensory modulation). The obvious

question is whether the reception of RV data occurs at the cortical (integration) level,

or whether it overlaps with normal visual processing pathways below this level? In

light of the above observations, it seems logical to conclude that the initial reception

is below level 10 - therefore that we are dealing not with abstract, conceptual data

fed directly to the "higher mind", but with raw stimulation which has a basis in some

form of material perception. Although we are far from understanding the nature of such

"extrasensory" stimuli, we know that many normal perceptual pathways involve the translation

of Morse-like patterns of nerve stimulation into alternative sensations. A typical example of this

pattern theory, as it's been called, is the way we discriminate between our basic tastes: since

one type of nerve responds to sweet and sour and another to sweet and salty, when both

nerves fire at the same time the "sweet" message is registered, with the other two rejected.

Is RV based on a similar - if far more complex - system of patterned stimuli? This may be

an area of interesting experimental possibilities - for example, given the loss of color which

normally occurs when only one or two of the three sets of color receptors are stimulated

(Rivlin & Gravelle pp 103) it would be interesting to see what happens when the RV target

is monochromatic in one of the primary colors.

Let's also look a little further into Swann's "sensory transduction arrays": according to his model,

they comprise both software (meaning assignment, training in the recognition of mental

impressions against target feedback) and hardware - on which, unfortunately, parapsychology

does not have very much to say. Swann recognizes, toward the end of this magnificent series

of essays, that psi research needs to move away from its traditional paradigm and embrace

the advances of neurobiology and information theory (Swann1997c) - a position with which

the present author is in complete agreement. But with cognitive science plagued by its own

conceptual impasses, where shall we look for support?

Swann emphasizes that RV and other subtle sensory abilities, such as the siddhis described

in the ancient yoga sutras, are abilities which require systematic and deliberate development,

in addition to intellectual understanding (1). This is a point with considerable echoes in the

meditation and qigong literature. In Zen and the Brain, Austin lists known physiological

changes observed in long-term meditators: increase in visual sensitivity; an increase in the level

of physiological arousal/blood norepinephrine levels (but without the expected rise in heart

rate/blood pressure!) during stressful situations; slower rate of breathing; and an increase in

skin resistance. Large predominant alpha waves are commonly observed in both masters and

trainees during qigong practice, with the amplitude increasing over time as the student advances

in training (Kawano, 1999; Kawano, 1998-1; Kawano & al, 1998; Kawano, 1998-2;

Terasawa & al, 1997; Kawano & al, 1996; Zhang & al, 1999; Machi, 2001; Zhang & al, 2000;

Cohen, 1996). Finally, long-term changes ranging from a drop in blood pressure to

improvements in heart function and microcirculation, increased cardiac output, beneficial

changes in blood chemistry, improved blood flow to the brain, and increased phagocytic

rates/immune function in cancer patients have been reported by now in dozens of qigong

studies (see Sancier, Cohen, McGee & Chow). Does this indicate that some form of

neuromuscular remodeling is involved, as in musical or athletic training? Are there new

connection being made between neurons and their receptor fields? These are perhaps

valid questions, but in the absence of a reasonable model explaining our access to non-local

information, they fail to provide much insight. Swann is quick to mention the validation of

additional, subtle senses by conventional science (for example, electromagnetic sensors and

"echolocators" in sharks and other fish, magnetic directional sensing by pigeons, and a number

of other animal orientation abilities - see Rivlin & Gravelle pp 53-64). But these are all based

on simple field gradients and do not begin to approach the complexity of information typical

of RV - at least judging from our current behavioral studies. Is there more detail to this

information than we have so far assumed?

One very interesting experiment that might shed some light on this question was done by

Elizabeth Rauscher and William Van Bise (Becker 1990 pp.105) who used magnetic fields

generated by 2 coils of wire, each pulsing at a different ELF frequency, and directed so as

to intersect at the head of a human subject. The subject was blindfolded, and as the frequencies

were slightly varied, they reported "seeing" simple geometric images (circles, ellipses, triangles)-

all of this bypassing the entire visual system as we know it! Since the currents were much too

weak to produce any action potentials, Becker suggests an explanation via stimulation of the

semiconductor DC control system. However, there is one other current theory available

which might provide even more insight into this phenomenon, as well as into other major

questions of "extrasensory" perception: we will deal with the magnetic sensory canvas

hypothesis and other implications of Pitkanen's Topological Geometrodynamics in

Section VI of this paper.

One of the recurrent objections to healing practices such as waiqi or therapeutic touch is that

we do not understand how energy and/or information can be effectively transmitted from one

person to another. While self-healing through visualization, meditation practices or biofeedback

is seen as a manipulation of psychoneuroendocrine cascades "firmly" based on conventional

biochemical models, we do not seem prepared to accept that someone else's intent can trigger

similar effects. Yet over two decades of serious research conducted in countries like Japan,

China, the US, Russia and others seem to strongly point in this direction. But in that case, where

is the locus of action? What does the signal consist of? And how much energy is involved in the

transfer - if, indeed, energy is being transferred at all? In this section we shall look at some

of the studies mentioned above and see if we can begin to sketch a possible answer to these


In a 1991 paper published by the American Journal of Chinese Medicine Chien & al. report

that they found the following biochemical effects when studying the influence of a qigong master's

"facilitating" qi on a culture of human fibroblasts: a 1.8% increase in cell growth rate in 24 hrs,

10-15% increase in DNA synthesis and 3-5% increase in cell protein synthesis in a 2 hr period.

When the master emitted "inhibiting" qi, the cell growth decreased by 6%, while DNA and

protein synthesis decreased by 20-23%, respectively 35-48%. Additionally, the respiration rate

of boar sperm was increased by 12.5-13% after a 5 minute exposure to "facilitating" qi, and

decreased by 45-48% by a 2 minute exposure to "inhibiting" qi. The qi was emitted from the

palms of the master and measured using a III-V compound semiconductor InSb detector -

as an increase, respectively decrease in the temperature of the environment.

A series of controlled studies conducted by US researchers Glen Rein and Rolin McCraty

of the HeartMath Institute (Benor PSupp p. 303-307, 406-410) presented evidence that

individuals generating highly coherent ECG spectra are capable of producing target-specific

and directional conformational changes in DNA samples. In these experiments, individuals

trained in generating focused feeling of deep love were asked to increase or decrease the rate

of DNA denaturation in DNA solution samples either held by them or kept in a laboratory

0.5 miles away. The ECG measurements were taken by fast Fourier transform techniques,

with the coherence ratio determined by the percent of coherent to non-coherent epics during

the two minutes of recording. The denaturation rate was measured using UV spectroscopy.

While individuals who showed low coherence ratios, although in a calm state of mind, were

unable to change the conformation of DNA, all subjects trained in the HeartMath technique

were able to produce high coherence rates and significant DNA changes (p<0.01 ), with

one individual demonstrating an effect size that was three times larger than the maximal thermal

and mechanical perturbation known to be possible. The winding and unwinding of the DNA

reflected the directionality of intent, and in one protocol involving three identical aliquots of DNA,

two samples were denatured to different degrees while the third one was left unchanged, as

intended. In distant-effect protocols, similar effects were noted, but the onset time varied from

immediate to a 60-minute delay, with the effect either continuing to increase or reaching a plateau,

depending on the experiment (Note: this delayed effect is a common observation in PK tests -

see Houck, Dong & Raffill). The authors believe that these observations indicate "an energetic

exchange of information between the heart and the rest of the body" which is "mediated by a

non-Hertzian quantum field" which they identify as "heart energy".

Similar results were obtained by Qigong Master Yan Xin (Yan, 1988), who applied external

qi to samples of calf thymus DNA and yeast RNA for 10-15 minutes and from distances ranging

between 0 and 10 km. As opposed to control samples which remained stable, the test samples'

UV absorptions (measured with a fast-scanning spectrophotometer) increased by 1.3-12%,

depending on the sample and the time of measurement (delayed effects were also noted in this

set-up, with one sample absorption increase value changing from 4.1% to 12% overnight, in the

absence of further emission). In general, the effect of subsequent emissions was to further

denature the DNA sample. Samples shielded by lead still demonstrated a 2.6% change

compared to controls. The level of significance in these tests was p< 2 x 10 ^-9. A similar test

on salmon sperm DNA subjected to 5 subsequent emissions (from 2,000km away) resulted

in a 51% increase in UV absorption over 13 hours (Li, 1988)

DNA synthesis in culture tumor cells treated with a healer's (Dr. Leonard Laskow) intent

demonstrated statistically significant inhibition, in a study reported by Glen Rein (Benor 2001

pp 401). Focused intent that the cells return to their natural order produced the same effect

(20%) as imagery alone, with the effect doubling in size when imagery and intent were combined.

An increase in the receiver's Laogong point skin temperature was measured during distant

(shielded) waiqi emission (Chen 2001). Another DMILS study (Kokubo, 2000) reports that, in

the results of 35 trials, the fluctuations in the receiver's skin conductance was smaller during the

sending periods than before and after. In another distant healing experiment (300 km), subjects

experienced body actions and reported visions of light images during the sending windows

(Kido, 2 001). Chinese researchers have also shown that external Qi can increase blood

plasma cAMP (Lin and Chen).

If all these changes can be imprinted upon a distant target, how about the effects of qigong on

the healer's own body? Medical literature abounds in evidence supporting the beneficial and

regulatory effects of qigong practice on almost every aspect of physical and mental health

(see Sancier; Cohen; McGee & Chow). We shall concentrate here only on some of the more

obscure (and intriguing) energetic processes, as they provide an important link to our previous


Intent-modulated emission of biophotons from the hands of qigong practitioners is a

well-known phenomenon that has often been reported in the scientific literature: at the 1999

Third World Congress on Qigong, Dr. Eugene Wallace reported measuring up to 100 time

stronger emissions from the hands of gifted subjects compared to controls. Tanaka & al.

(Tanaka 2001) report that a qigong master imagining qi emission from the right palm was able

to significantly decrease the skin surface temperature of the right palm compared to rest periods,

while no change was observed in the left hand. A study by Nakamura & al. (Nakamura 2000)

reports an increase in subject's hand biophoton intensity associated with a drop in skin surface

temperature during qigong practice.

Physical signal detectors have measured a variety of energy fluctuations in the vicinity of qigong

and therapeutic touch practitioners. In their review, Lin and Chen report 80% frequency

modifications in the far infrared radiation detected 50 cm from the palm of a qigong practitioner;

thermal flow (detected by an AGA thermogram) indicated heat moving from the arm to the

palm and finally the fingers of a qigong master emitting qi, while other studies showed a

rhythmical alternation of brain hemispheric temperature during a master's qigong practice.

Tests conducted in a zero-magnetism lab in China showed significantly higher magnetic signals

and (in 80% of the subjects) residual magnetic signatures from qigong practitioners compared

to control subjects. At the same time, Radin reports in a 1991 paper (Radin 1991) that the

background ionizing radiation could be decreased in accordance to task instructions (p<0.05),

only to suddenly increase above control levels 20 seconds after the treatment period. In the

same issue of JISSSEEM, Elmer Green & al. report body-potential surges of 4 to 221 V

(median value 8.3 V) in therapeutic touch meditators, compared to under 4 V in all

non-meditators. These surges were predominantly negative in polarity and lasted a median

3.6 seconds. As these values are over 100 times greater than GSP, EEG or EKG voltages,

the authors could not find a reasonable source of energy explaining this phenomenon.

Another interesting observation is reported in (Benford 1999): in a series of experiments

involving therapeutic touch practitioners and their subjects, gamma radiation levels significantly

decreased in 100% of the subjects and at every body site tested. (The author's hypothesis is that

the healers's conscious intentions are producing increased EM fields around the hands of the

healers, which cause alterations in Shipov's torsion field and thus distortions of the zero-point

field - which in turn somehow "rebalance the energy scales and return [the target organism] to


One of the most striking effects of qigong practice is the so-called Bigu state, in which

practitioners continue to carry on normal activities while surviving on 300 calories per day or

less. The diet typically consists of water and fruit juices and is followed for periods of time

ranging from a week to months and even years. Subjects report that they do not experience

hunger or the desire to eat and that their perceived energy level, as well as physical and mental

competency are enhanced during this period. (Terenzini, ). For the advanced practitioner, this

state follows naturally "when the accumulation of qi reaches a certain point" (Gao 1998).

Although the mechanisms behind this phenomenon are not yet understood, preliminary studies

done in China and the US show that the metabolic profile is significantly different from that

associated with fasting - according to Dr. Rustum Roy, who chaired the 2000 Bigu Conference

at Penn State University (for example, the serum protein levels are significantly raised). To use

Dr. Roy's analogy, this indicates that the body somehow assumes a super-efficient state, like a

car which can run 80 miles to the gallon instead of the usual 15 or 20 (1, 2, Huang 1988)

How can we understand such phenomena? With the exception of photoautotrophic organisms,

all other systems are energetically dependent on the use of chemical compounds which are

produced with light as the primary driving force (Renger 1998). Do qigong practitioners

bypass these usual metabolic pathways to "feed on light", as Bigu is commonly referred to? The

idea seems so preposterous that it is hardly worth mentioning. And yet, as we shall see in the

following section, the role of light in biosystems is much farther-reaching than previously assumed.

While non-autotrophs may not be able to "feed" on light, the utilization of energy by their

organisms may be greatly modified by electromagnetic fields.

V. The quantum-holographic blueprint of living structures


VI. The Phase Space of Conscious Interactions

In a superb paper presented to the British Acupuncture Society in October 1999, entitled

"Coherent Energy, Liquid Crystallinity and Acupuncture", Mae-Wan Ho outlines the essential

features of the biophysical (as opposed to biochemical) paradigm: 1. living organisms are open

systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium and characterized by a highly coordinated hierarchy

of energy flow cycles, such that entropy is minimized and energy efficiency approaches 100%. 2.

The energy is stored in a coherent form tied to the characteristic space-time domains of natural

processes, "a quantum superposition of coherent activities, with instantaneous (non-local)

noiseless intercommunication throughout the system". Thus any subtle perturbation arising

anywhere within this domain is instantly propagated and amplified throughout the entire organism.

This super-sensitivity to weak signals, Ho argues, is the basis for all forms of energy medicine,

including acupuncture (Ho 1999, 1996).

Evidence for this model of living systems continues to stream in at accelerating rates:

neurophysiologists have found macroscopic, phase-correlated electrical activities in widely

separated parts of the brain (Ho 1999, 1996); "molecular energy machines" transfer energy

non-dissipatively from the point of release to the point of utilization in coupled, collective modes

which span the entire subcellular-macroscopic continuum (Ho 1996 ); metabolites are

channeled sequentially in multi-enzyme complexes, thus giving rise to coupled reactions; the

cell itself has been shown to possess a highly complex microtrabecular lattice structuring and

channeling the distribution of metabolites, chemical messengers and water, its functional

configuration responding to the subtlest mechanical and electrochemical signals - acting, in

effect, more like a solid state than the "bag of enzymes" it had previously been identified with

(Ho 1996). Other processes which cannot be explained strictly on the basis of the current

model (i.e. the nervous system controlling and coordinating all responses to stimuli) are the

speed of eye-hand coordination, the accuracy of phase agreement in global brain oscillations,

motor defense reactions and the detection of local DC potential changes half a second before

sensory signals arrive in the brain (Ho 1998, 1997, 1993). But the most promising directions

for the study of coherent excitations in living systems are tied to the discovery of biophotons

in the 1970s.

All living systems emit light spontaneously: these ultra-weak emissions range from a few up

to several hundred photons per second per square centimeter of surface area. The distribution

spectrum ranges from infra-red to ultra-violet and is nearly flat (does not depend on the

wavelength), which suggests that the energy is emitted from a wide range of excited molecules

and stored in a delocalized manner within the system. This broad spectral distribution persists

when the organism is stimulated with monochromatic light (delayed luminescence), in which

case a hyperbolic decay rate is observed. It has been argued by Popp and others (Popp and

Chang 1998; Ho 1993, Popp a, b; Popp and Yan) that these characteristics are necessary

and sufficient to demonstrate that the source of biophotons is a coherent photon field within

the organism. Furthermore, it has been shown by Popp (Ho Will, Gaia) that the flat

distribution results in an optimization of the signal-noise ratio over all wavelengths, hence

minimal entropy.

Cells undergo an average 10^5 reactions per second. Cilento has shown (Popp, 1999) that

most biological reactions take place when a photon is borrowed from the surrounding

electromagnetic bath, exciting the transition state complex, then is returned to the surroundings

to become available for the next reaction. Since the average reaction takes 10^-9 seconds,

Popp has argued that one photon (or an extremely low photon intensity) may be all that is

needed to supply the required activation energy for all cell reactions. In fact, given that in

10^-9 seconds the electromagnetic wave packet travels over a distance of 10 cm (or 10^4

times the diameter of a cell), it is impractical to even speak of single photons in a cell: instead,

we must envision a field of electromagnetic wave amplitudes which can localize and delocalize

according to the interference patterns and non-equilibrium dynamics of a field whose coherence

volume may range from nanometers to meters. Thus metabolic energy, instead of being lost

as heat, is stored as coherent electromagnetic vibrations (collective modes). One property of

this coherent state is its factorizability (Ho and Popp, 1989; Ho 1998): parts of the system

can behave quite independently of each other, yet maintain instant communication (much like

players in an orchestra, to use Ho's analogy). Another interesting characteristic is the coupling

of the different frequency bands, such that random energy introduced into the system is

instantly communicated to other frequencies (Ho 1993 pp 91).

Photon fluxes play a remarkable number of biological roles as either carriers of information

(in enzyme activation, phototropism, photomorphogenesis, phototaxis, regulation of gene

expression, vision) or as a driving energy for biological processes (Renger 1998).

Furthermore, it is known (Chwirot, 1998; Rubik) that both the intensity and the spectrum

of the biophoton emission are strongly correlated with the physiological and developmental

state of the organism, and with the actions of the environment upon it (especially stressors,

which tend to cause an increase of bioluminescence intensity). The dominating role of source

and sink for the biophoton field is the DNA molecule. (Popp-1999, Popp and Chang 1998)

(in fact the mammalian red blood cells, which do not have active chromatine, are the only cells

which do not emit biophotons). There are definite correlations between the intensity of biophoton

emission (BPE) and conformational states of DNA during meiosis (Popp 1999). For example,

increased levels of ultraweak luminescence (UWL) have been observed during cell division in

frog eggs, the germination of seeds and during early stages of differentiation of Dictyosteluim

discoideum (4; Chwirot). The same papers report significantly higher level of photon emission

from surgically removed tumors compared to normal tissues, a non-linear correlation between

BPE and growth rate, and further correlations between the UWL from the fingertips of patients

and their age and certain physiopathological states. Beside the prospect of a sensitive,

non-invasive technique to diagnose a variety of early conditions, these findings offer ample

support to the thesis that biophotons are intimately related to the regulation of critical

biological functions.

Noting correlations between optical properties of molecules and their carcinogenic activity,

Popp has suggested that cancer induction is related to the loss of coherence of a photon field

in the living tissues, originating from excited states of DNA. Evidence is gradually

accumulating in support of his theory: for example, it has been shown that the delayed

luminescence relaxation of tumor tissues with increasing cell density in solution approaches

an exponential function, whereas normal tissues follow a hyperbolic function (Chang & Popp).

Another argument is related to the control of normal development: growth regulation is based

on the death rate of cells, with sudden cell death and mitosis having to balance each other

perfectly; with 10^7 cells dying every second in the human body, this information has to

travel a distance of at least 10^-3cm in 10^-7 seconds, which is much faster than the velocity

of messenger molecules, approaching the velocity of sound. If it is assumed that the message

is holistic and related to the entire body, then the scale becomes 1 meter, and the speed of

transmission reaches electromagnetic values. Thus cancer can be seen as an imbalance

between cell growth and death due to a deterioration of intercellular and full-body

communication systems (Popp and Chang 1998) - and indeed, research has shown

(Chwirot- a,b) that the characteristics of biophoton emission curves are different for

normal versus tumor tissues.

The spatio-temporal coherence of biophoton fields means that complex EM interference

patterns are created throughout the organism: the more coherent the light, the sharper the

interference patterns. It has been suggested by Popp, Gariaev and others that these patterns

may be the basis of morphogenesis and structural/biochemical regulation of the organism

throughout its life - an EM blueprint guiding the development, repair and even social behavior

of organisms. The phase information within and between cells are hypothesized to act as

biological control parameters regulating the growth and differentiation of cells, with

constructive interference domains intracellularly and destructive interference in the

extracellular matrix (Popp 1999). Experimental evidence such as the phantom leaf effect

(see Gariaev 1991), the delayed luminescence function of tumor cells and the distribution

of Daphnia larvae (Popp-a, Popp 1986, Chang&Popp 1998, Ho 1993, 1996) certainly

seem to support this hypothesis. For example, loss of coherence in tumor cells is presumed

responsible for the loss of inhibition (destructive extracellular interference) leading to abnormal

mitosis rates (Popp & Chang).

One of the most remarkable findings to shed some light on the possible mechanism of

biophoton control comes from Ho's laboratory: in 1993, she and Lawrence discovered that,

under polarized light microscopy, this extraordinary level of dynamic coherence makes

organisms appear crystalline. Because the frequency of coherent molecular motion in cells and

tissues is much lower than the frequency of light, molecules will appear to be statically ordered,

or crystalline, to the light passing through. This dynamic coherence is a continuum that extends

from intracellular molecules to the cytoplasm, extracellular matrix and the connective tissues

throughout the organism. (Ho 1993). The lipids in cellular membranes, the cytoskeletal and

muscle proteins, collagen and other connective tissue macromolecules, as well as the DNA in

chromosomes - all these essential and ubiquitous molecules of living systems are liquid crystals

(Ho 1996, Beal). Consequently, the organism may be seen as a solid state possessing many of

the physical characteristics of these highly interesting materials.

Liquid crystals (LCs) are mesophases - states of matter between the solid and liquid phase.

While they possess long range orientational order, they are highly mobile and responsive,

undergoing orientation changes (phase transitions) when exposed to a wide variety of stimuli,

including electromagnetic fields, temperature and pressure changes, hydration, pH,

concentrations of inorganic ions and other pysico-chemical parameters (Beal, Ho 1996).

LC can convert information about minute changes in pressure, temperature and light into

electrical currents (they are piezoelectric, pyroelectric and photoelectric). Lastly (but, as we

shall see, very significant for our main proposal) they are permanently modified (sensitized)

by the passage of electrical currents so as to facilitate the future passage of such currents

(Becker 1985 pp 257).

Considering these arguments, Mae-Wan Ho concludes that the liquid crystalline continuum

of the body acts as "the basis of sentience", a primitive "body consciousness", working in

tandem with the nervous system and representing the primary control center for instantaneous

coordination of body functions. Moreover, she suggests that Becker's semiconducting DC

potentials and "currents of injury" are not restricted to the perineural system, but are distributed

throughout the LC matrix of the organism. (Ho 1998). Because conformational changes in a

LC network produce alterations in the structure of bound water associated with them, and

because the water itself has a certain degree of resistance to change, this body consciousness

is also characterized by "tissue memory", which becomes part of the dynamic circuits

constituting the DC body field. Finally, Ho suggests that the LC matrix may act a quantum

holographic medium which records interference patterns between local events and the global

body field - an idea which finds full agreement with Gariaev's experimental work (see below).

Since the early '90s, Gariaev's team has been developing a new theoretical and experimental

approach to the study of genetic material encoding and expression. In a pioneering paper

(Gariaev 2001; see this issue), he and his colleagues challenge the limits of the genetic code

triplet model and propose instead a dual, substance/wave basis for the encoding and

expression of genetic material. The wave-like, non-local aspect of genetic regulation is

recorded at the polarization level of DNA-associated photons, and the genome is seen as a

quasi-hologram of light and radio waves which create the background necessary for the

appropriate expression of genetic material.

Some of the experimental evidence cited in support of this new model is extensively reviewed:

1. the ability of DNA and chromatin in vitro to be pumped in as a laser-active medium for

consequent light laser generation; 2. the fact that 95-98% of a genome represents non-coding

sequences which have been shown (by statistical analysis using the Zipf-Mandelbrot law) to

have more in common with natural languages and demonstrate significantly greater

long-distance correlations, than coding sequences; 3. the existence of homonymous-synonymous

ambiguities of genetic texts; 4. the virus-like strain specificity of prions in the absence of

DNA/RNA material; and 5. laboratory research carried out by Yu. V. Dzang Kangeng, who

demonstrated wave transmission of genetic information to change hereditary characteristics

of biological accepting objects. (Although Kangeng provides no theoretical interpretation

of the operational device, the authors' previous work with laser mirrors closely parallels his

protocol, leading them to conclude that the polarized laser beam split into orthogonal waves

which, by repeated passing through the optically active donor DNA and multiple interference

with itself, lead to the phenomenon of photon field localization and information recording);

6. the authors' own experiments with polarization-laser-radio-wave (PLRW) spectroscopy,

whereby they used electromagnetic waves to "repair" the genetic information of old

radioactively-damaged seeds from the Chernobyl area (1987).

The authors argue that the genome emits light and radio-waves whose delocalized interference

patterns create calibration fields (blueprints) for a system's space-time organization. This

holographic-type information is being constantly and simultaneously read in billions of cells,

accounting for the quick coordinated response typical of living systems. On the basis of this

model, the authors suggest that the activation of oncogenes and xenobiotic HIV sequences is

dependent on genome holographic processes and therefore that future research in these

high-profile areas should focus on the factors modulating such EM field characteristics

(such as external artificial modified fields) in addition to local, molecular biology approaches.

The problems presented in the preceding discussion (detection of non-local and/or

sub-threshold sensory information, super-efficient energy utilization, non-local control of

genetic material) receive an original and very compelling solution in the context of Topological

Geometrodynamics - a comprehensive 8-dimensional reality model in which cognitive

representations like memory, perception and intent exist as 3-D spacetime sheets of various

durations in a global 8-D manifold, and are subject to laws of dynamics and evolution which

lead to entanglement, phase transitions and other non-local phenomena (see

Pitkanen 2002 -a,b,c).

One of the key concepts of TGD are the so-called massless extremals (MEs), which are

topological field quanta of electromagnetic fields and one of the basic solutions of field equations

in TGD. They carry a lightlike vacuum current (a massless, purely geometric current produced

by spacetime deformations) which generates coherent EM waves and propagates with no

attenuation. MEs can be generated by quantum jumps and are topological/geometrical correlates

of entanglement in all length scales (spacetime bridges between both physical and p-adic sheets).

Furthermore, ME-magnetic flux tube pairs are laser mirrors, which play a very significant

role in sensory representations, long term memories and genetic information (see below). In

living systems, MEs associated with linear structures such as DNA and microtubules act as

sources of coherent photons (biophotons, ultraweak luminescence). MEs define an infinite

hierarchy of electromagnetic lifeforms and are essential to the understanding of EEG: "each

primary quale corresponds to a particular EEG frequency and EEG provides a representation

of brain state just like {an] atomic transition frequencies [...] spectrum" (Pitkanen-d).

Pitkanen proposes that the binding energy of molecules is represented at the level of

spacetime topology by negative energy MEs: hydrogen bonds correspond to ME with lengths

of a few micrometers; covalent bonds MEs have lengths in the order of visible light wavelengths.

MEs in all length scales give rise to magnetic bridges between cells, organs, etc. Thus atomic

and molecular properties automatically imply properties of EM "bodies" having much larger

sizes and provide a basis for long distance correlations and even an EM genetic code - a

holographic template used by the body to self-organize (see Gariaev). MEs generated by

the radiation of DNA and amplified by LC bound water of DNA have lengths up to the

body size in the high frequency end of the spectrum - thus ELF MEs can be seen as coding

for the magnetic body.

Magnetic mirrors formed by magnetic flux tube/ME pairs occur in all length scales in TGD,

providing a general molecular recognition mechanism and a generalization of manysheeted

DNA, as well as a basis for the sensory canvas and long term memories (the latter bearing

interesting similarities to Peter Marcer's theory of memory as a "re-experience" of a given

event). ME-magnetic flux tubes pairs make possible bridges between healer and target and

the transfer of intent and action by resonant interaction.

One of the most significant implications of Pitkanen's theory is the magnetic sensory canvas

(MSC) hypothesis, which states that our "selves" are composed of the physical body and

a magnetic "body", consisting of magnetic flux tube structures which are part of the Earth's

magnetic field. (Another way to say this is that the Earth's magnetic field has self-organized

into complex patterns inside living organisms). Thus sensory representations are realized

outside the brain at magnetic flux tube structures associated with the brain and having a

size comparable to the Earth's circumference. EM stimulation of magnetic flux tube/ME

pairs of the sensory canvas induce them to resonantly oscillate at harmonics of

thalamocortical resonance frequencies, thus "projecting" sensory data on this extracorporeal

canvas in a frequency-coded fashion. It is known (see Becker 1990 p234-42), that ELF

frequencies which are multiples of cyclotron frequencies for Ca++ and other biologically

important ions have special effects on living tissues. TGD postulates that sensory qualia

correspond to the increments of quantum numbers in quantum jumps which occur between

the magnetic states of various ions in the Earth's magnetic field. Particular frequencies

stimulate the magnetosphere, giving rise to a 'feeling of existence" in a given position of the

magnetic sensory canvas, while inside the brain similar magnetic transitions involving protons,

electrons, as well as ions like K+, Cl-, Na+, Ca2+, etc. are responsible for the "wake-up" of

mental images and qualia. EEG frequency bands act like radio frequency bands: when the

brain is tuned to the correct values, cyclotron transitions occur resonantly, leading to an

entanglement of the mental image (quale) and particular position on the magnetic sensory

canvas - thus "extrasensory perception".

Thus the brain cycles through an enormous number of frequencies corresponding to

"reception windows" (meaning that the EEG is not so much a summation of actual neural

activity as a digital dial picture, showing which reception frequencies are active at the moment):

in the awake state, the frequencies are predominantly in the beta-alpha range, corresponding

to direct sensory receptor apparatus and restricting perception to body-adjacent area. In sleep

and trance, the frequency spectrum shifts and the brain becomes receptive to resonant

frequencies in its extended magnetic sensory canvas: this perceptual dependence on specific

EEG/MEG spectra might also explain why we are not able to achieve a high degree of

replicability in anomalous cognition tasks, even after the most extensive training

(McMoneagle 1997, 2000).

The size of ELF MEs is in the range of the Earth's circumference, which means that a single

projector ME stimulates both the personal magnetic sensory canvas and the Earth's magnetic

field. Since a given region of the magnetosphere can receive information from several brains, this

can lead to the sharing of mental images and give rise to phenomena like telepathy and RV.

ME/magnetic flux tube mirrors may also reflect perturbations in the earth's geomagnetic field,

accounting for the well known correlations between geomagnetic activity and reported

psychological disturbances, as well as the observed interference with ESP function

(Becker 1990, p 242).

One of the main proposals of TGD is that the generation of bound states liberates energy.

This has extraordinary implications for the study of distant healing and other forms of PK, in

that the "qi state" can be seen as an entanglement between the healer and surrounding

("universal qi") spacetime sheets, as a result of which surrounding energy becomes available

via magnetic bridges and can be subsequently transferred to the target. The question of the

"missing energy" in Bigu can also be resolved in this manner - as an "absorption" of

environmental energy in addition to the heightened coherence and efficiency of utilization.

It is important to remember that the Bigu state is not achievable except for limited intervals

(weeks to months usually) and until advanced stages of training have been followed, such that

the "accumulation of qi reaches a certain level" (Gao ) - signaling, presumably, a state of

entanglement which is relatively difficult to maintain for prolonged periods of time.

P-adic to real phase transitions (e.g. transformation of intent into action) occur constantly

in the awake state, catalyzed by volition. This is equivalent to quantum jumps leading to

subjective time experience/moment of consciousness, and also to the separation of self from

the p-adic background. In TGD, such transitions require energy expenditure, thus metabolic

input. Conversely, loss of consciousness associated with sleep or trance means that volition is

absent and these transitions do not occur. Bigu may therefore be seen as a unique state of

partial cognitive entanglement with the environment/partial autonomy.

Entanglement between selves is realized by the formation of join-along boundaries between

spacetime sheets having the same local topology (real or p-adic), which also provides a

mechanism for building wholes from parts (organisms from molecules, Selves from mental

images, etc). The fact that both the real and p-adic spacetime sheets of different selves can

entangle as long as they possess the same topology is an important prediction of TGD, which

has direct implications on the possible mechanisms of anomalous cognition and psychokinesis.

The basic iterative step of self-organization and evolution is the quantum jump, which consists

of several steps. The final step (state preparation) is governed by the Negentropy Maximization

Principle, which states that only a subsystem giving rise to maximum negentropy gain in a

quantum jump can perform this transition (qjump). At the same time, quantum entanglement gives

rise to the generation of long range order and the emergence of increasingly longer coherent

dynamical units - an idea which echoes Mae-Wan Ho's concept of evolution. This principle

represents a maximization of the cognitive information content of a given spacetime surface -

the universe tends continually toward maximal intelligence!

The ability of selves to switch between awake/localized and semi-trance/entangled modes

of operation provides a mechanism for the self-narrative of our consciousness, an ability to

restrict the amount of input relevant to the organism's routine operations while still allowing

access to the collective intelligence of the species (see morphogenetic field and "extrasensory"

perceptions). Pitkanen suggests that this binary structure is an essential and ubiquitous

evolutionary element (seen everywhere from the cell membrane bilayer to the double helix of the

DNA and the hemispheric organization of the brain) - including the parallel development of

biological life and culture seen as an increase in the complexity of the genetic and memetic


The implications of this theory for a non-local model of consciousness and its correlations

with Mark Germine's landmark experiment (Germine 1998) will be explored in part two

of this paper (to be published in a future issue). For now, let us merely note that very similar

ideas have been proposed by prominent scientists such as E. Laszlo, M.W. Ho, P. Marcer

(see below), R. Sheldrake and, of course, D. Bohm.

Finally, let us also note that the magnetic sensory canvas hypothesis dovetails in an elegant

fashion with both anomalous cognition data and pattern theory (see section III). It is

conceivable that Becker's perineural system and/or the LC matrix of the organism

(including, but not limited to, connective tissues, cell membranes and DNA) might act

as a full-body array of sensory receptors for Pitkanen's magnetic sensory canvas

signals, with specific excitations patterns coding for different types of information.


One of the major challenges facing us is to understand why and how certain training techniques

lead to an enhancement in psi function - in other words, why the interface between the physical

and cognitive dimensions becomes more permeable with certain meditation practices. It is well

known that siddhis (spontaneous or specifically cultivated) characterize advanced practice

stages in many spiritual traditions. Swann (1996a) emphasized that the primary goal of yoga

(as described by Patanjali's and other ancient sutras) was an overall expansion of sensory

awareness - and that as a result of this expansion, other mechanisms also became activated,

accounting for what we would today call psychic powers. This also seems to be the case with

modern Chinese training programs (see Dong & Raffill), where children originally found to be

capable of "ear reading" were subsequently trained to perform (or spontaneously developed)

PK feats such as opening flower buds, removing pills from sealed medicine bottles or mental

writing. The evidence also suggests (see section III) that these advanced stages are not

merely a matter of "know-how", but involve long-term/permanent changes in the

practitioner's physiology. Traditional wisdom assigns these changes to an "increase in qi flow".

Do we dare look for its physical correlate?"

What we propose is that qigong and other meditative techniques work by

progressively increasing the overall coherence ("qi flow"?) of the EM/LC

continuum via conscious mental driving, in a way not dissimilar to laser pumping

or the gradual orientation of ferromagnetic particles in an EM field. Meditation

frequencies engage the thalamic silent periods and possibly other frequency-window

pacemakers, and thus "drive" the configurational states that the body naturally

cycles through, to sensitize its LC matrix to particular frequencies. The

semiconductor nature of living tissues suggests that, with repeated passage of

an EM current through them, their sensitivity to subsequent signals should increase -

a property which, we believe, is critical to the understanding of long-term physiological

changes seen in qigong practitioners. This "kindling" effect of meditation would,

in our model, lead both to a gradual increase in tissue liquid crystallinity (hence

greater perceptual sensitivity, energy efficiency and ability to absorb stresses as

per Ho's model of frequency delocalization - see section V ); and to more efficient

coupling between intent (EM signal modulation) and its physical transducers - be

they DNA molecules regulating the body's physiological responses, or other,

yet-unknown elements which may be instrumental in anomalous cognition and

psychokinesis. The maintenance of a mentally-driven, permanent tighter-than-average

molecular coherence would thus result in faster signal detection/transmission and

greater amplification of even the most minute field fluctuations, so that normally

imperceptible "ESP" signals would gradually become consciously detectable and/or

lead to reflex responses as seen in tohate demonstrations (Yamamoto & al, 1996a,b).

Phenomena like Bigu and self-healing then become natural extensions of this

mechanism, with the specificity of given physiological actions being directed by

characteristic frequency patterns as we have described elsewhere (Sidorov 2001).

One significant piece of evidence in favor of this model comes from (Lin & Chen), in which the

authors describe studies done by professor Deyin Chu of Peking University on the

conformational changes of biomolecules under the effect of external Qigong. Using samples

of poly-glutamic acid, poly-lysinec, metallothionein and RNA, they found significant changes

in the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum which were directional and varied with the intent of the

master emitting the qi. It is also possible that similar results were obtained by a Russian team

whose experiments are briefly described in a report by L. Vilenskaya and E. May: although specific

details are missing (such as the exact nature of all the optical media), the authors mention that

organic compounds were used in conjunction with a high-precision optical polarimeter to measure

changes in the angle of rotation of the polarization plane unde the influence of a few gifted

subjects; the fact that changes varying from 20sec to 1 min arc rotations were obtained by

3 out of 5 operators within 1.5 minutes from the beginning of the attempt does indicate that

changes in the structure of the organic medium were produced under mental influence.

Furthermore, a 10x increase in the concentration of the medium produced a two-fold increase

in the effect size.

Ho's studies have shown that all organisms, from protozoa to vertebrates, are polarized along the anterior-posterior axis, so that the colors representing the different tissues of the body change

continuously and are at a maximum when the axis is appropriately aligned in the optical system.

(Ho 1998). This raises an interesting question: if, indeed, qigong acts on the

conformation of liquid crystal arrays, could we use Ho's polarization microscope

technique to detect such global changes in a target organism while under the influence

of external qi? We suggest that a small organism or a cell culture could be used in such a

protocol, then followed by metabolic and physiological assays to objectively compare the effects

of waiqi to control samples. In particular, any increase in DNA or protein synthesis, or

similarities with the metabolic profile observed in Bigu, would support the hypothesis that

qi increases the coherence of an organism's solid state matrix. It may also become possible,

as the technology evolves, to observe the effects of qigong on the practitioner's own molecular

structure - for example, by studying finger capillary beds or other areas of thin cross section

under the polarization microscopy techniques employed by Ho's team. Current efforts are

under way in countries like Germany and Japan to develop ways of simultaneously measuring

the full-body biophoton emissions of human subjects: such possibilities will undoubtedly pave

the way for increasingly detailed, non-invasive studies into the realm of subtle energy-molecular


A very intriguing possibility is that the expression of genetic material may be influenced to

a large degree by the locus of "spontaneous" DNA unwinding - which, as we have

seen, can be effected by conscious intent (see section IV). It remains to be seen in

future qigong experiments how specific this "denaturation" can become under the

influence of given intents - that is, whether the effort to produce two different types

of protein in, say, a bacterial culture, leads to chromosomal unwinding which

selectively exposes the genes responsible for the particular proteins. If, as Gariaev

proposes, the expression of a particular gene is regulated by the spatio-temporal

characteristics (i.e. constructive/destructive interference, polarization angles) of an EM

environment created by vast stretches of intronic DNA and other LC tissue components, then

it is conceivable that some of these parameters (say, the polarization angle) may be modulated

by DC potentials which are in turn driven by intent. As Dr. Becker points out, "under hypnosis,

humans may be given verbal commands to the conscious digital-system portions of the brain,

which can then effectively control the operations of the DC analog system. Since the primitive

analog system controls growth and healing, it is possible that under certain circumstances,

conscious thought can cause healing.(Becker 1990 p 91)" But how exactly does this happen?

It is known that polarized light can be used to induce molecular alignment with high spatial

resolution. Beal states: "A biopolymer may be regarded as being a physical, structural

memory of previous environmental configuration, a memory of a previous wave state of the

environment. [...] If this particular wave state has had a part in the original structuring of the

biopolymer, then, when it re-radiates energy, it will simulate the wave pattern of the

environment. " We also know that qigong masters like Yan Xin are able to distantly modify

the polarization angle of a laser beam by as much as 12% (Yan & Lu 1988). Similar

experiments conducted in Russia (Vilenskaya & May) have also yielded statistically

significant results. Changing the polarization angle of one EM field component might

"refocus the DNA un-zipping" point of the resultant vector on a different segment

of DNA, or, assuming that the locus of action is found by progressively opening

"chapters" of chromosomal material - the overall configuration of the field's

interference pattern might impose a different conformation on the double helix,

leading in turn to a different pattern of "spontaneous book opening". We believe

that such mechanisms have been honed through natural feedback loops over millions of years

of evolution, adding to the self-healing and fast-response capabilities of higher organisms in a

way that supersedes conventional immunological pathways and the standard fight-or-flight

neurohormonal cascade. (For example, one interesting observation is that microscopic

studies of cancer tissues treated with qigong reveal precisely the apoptotic bodies hypothesized

by Gariaev to be induced by photon localization (Chen & He 2002)). Although modern

pharmacotherapeutic interventions have shifted the healing responsibility away from the

patient's lifestyle and mental attitude, there is ample documentation (Sancier, Benor) that,

with training, conscious intent can effect dramatic changes on almost every aspect of our

metabolic, physiological and genetic mechanisms. For these reasons we think it imperative

that advanced experimental approaches such as X-ray crystallography, polarization microscopy

and ultralow intensity photon detectors be used more extensively in CAM protocols, which

have historically focused on clinical studies and case reports which yield little or no information

on the actual mechanisms at work.

What about the energetic cost to the organism of such mentally-driven effects? What is the

source of energy in the case of distant targets? Over and over, studies of DMILS (Sidorov

2001, 2002) have demonstrated that the body seems aware of distant intent below the level

of conscious perception - in essence bypassing what we consider mental activity. But if these

effects are not mediated by "mind-to-mind contact" (i.e. by transmitting cognitive commands

converted top-down from the receiver's brain to his neuroendocrine system), then the only

remaining possibility is that distant intent works directly on the body's "transducer array" - that

is, either at the level of LC coherence (as per Ho), or on the somatic EM hologram postulated

by Gariaev. Although Ho's and Popp's studies have shown that the organism should

theoretically be able to amplify as little as one quantum of energy to the level of an effective

signal, we are still left with two puzzling questions: 1. How can we reconcile this exquisite

sensitivity with the body's necessary resilience in an environment saturated with EM frequencies

spanning almost the entire known spectrum (see Becker 1990 p 189). In other words, how

do we solve the signal-below-threshold problem? 2. How is the energy and/or information

transferred from subject to target in the case of shielded/distant interactions?

To answer the first question, let us turn to the conclusion of the Neurosciences Report

Program (Oschman 2000) regarding the signal-to-noise problem: "The existence of biological

effects of very weak electromagnetic fields suggests an extraordinarily efficient mechanism

for detecting these fields and discriminating them from much higher levels of noise. The

underlying mechanisms must necessarily involve ever increasing numbers of elements in

the sensing system, ordered in particular ways to form a cooperative organization and

manifesting similar forms and levels of energy over long distances." This is strangely

reminiscent of the "pattern theory" we described in Section III, and suggests that our current

view of sensory processing pathways is, if anything, in its infancy. The opportunities presented

by the body's ubiquitous liquid crystal arrays and their almost infinite configuration possibilities

make them a top candidate for the primary sensory receptors parapsychology has been looking

for. It is even conceivable that DNA phase-conjugation properties (see Popp and Chang 1998)

allow it to function as a multi-mode antenna, altering its function according to surrounding signal

fields and possibly acting not just as a regulatory program, but also an element of "extrasensory"

perception. The role played by the EM polarization parameter in Gariaev's model of genetic

regulation, and the confirmed ability of intent to modulate this parameter (see Yan Xin) are further

clues that a living organism is not a mere collection of specialized receptors and binding sites, but

(to complete Mae-Wan Ho's cellular analogy) a shimmering network of infinite plasticity and

possible functions. The existence of these specific "windows" of sensitivity can be seen in

numerous examples: for instance, in Becker's landmark dedifferentiation study, the red blood

cells did not exhibit any of the desired effect until the current was reduced to a billionth of an

ampere - an intensity which the experimenters had initially considered much too negligible to use,

although their calculations suggested it (Becker 1985 pp142). Another example is the brain tissue,

which has a maximum frequency sensitivity in the ELF range, between 6-20 Hz, and intensity

of 10^-7V/cm (Oschman 2000). Such "windows" may easily be a result of interference patterns

and series of "transducer grids" acting to filter out signals in a sequential, ordered way.

How about the second question? As we have argued before, the two central questions of

DMILS are those of target specificity and energy-versus-information transmission. It is

well-known, for example (see Li&al 1988, Yan&al 1988, Lin&Chen) that controlled studies

with external qi affect only the target samples, leaving other samples in their proximity relatively

unchanged. This strongly suggests that some form of entanglement between subject and target

is involved, either alone or in addition to the energy transmission. Pitkanen's TGD model offers

a possible answer to both of these critical aspects of DMILS: as we have seen in section VI,

the magnetic sensory canvas hypothesis provides a mechanism for "sharing qualia" associated

with distant points on the geomagnetic sphere - essentially a form of cognitive entanglement

between operator and target. (Incidentally, qigong masters also describe their preparatory

efforts as an attempt to make mental contact with the target, claiming that this becomes

increasingly more difficult as the target loses conscious characteristics: thus contact with another

human being is considerably easier to establish than with an inanimate physical system

(Lin & Chen)). Furthermore, p-adic to real (intent to action) phase transitions give rise to

massless extremals - vacuum currents which make quantum entanglement possible by

generating concrete oscillating bridges (coherent EM fields) between spacetime sheets

with identical topology. Thus, one clear advantage of TGD over other models of subtle

energy transmission is that the EM fields are not directly carried from sender to target,

but are simultaneously generated at the two locations by a vacuum (geometrical) current:

hence they remain coherent while bypassing the paradox of non-attenuation with distance.

These ideas are so audaceous at the moment that experimental protocols designed to test

them may not be easy to come by. As we have shown in previous reviews (Sidorov 2001,

2002), DMILS are often accompanied by unusual energy fluctuations in the vicinity of the

sender. This has generally been constructed as an argument that a "subtle energy field" is

mediating the information transfer - thus postulating the existence of a yet-undetected physical

field extending between the sender and receiver within our conventional 4-spacetime. In fact,

it is not at all clear whether these energy fluctuations represent the actual information transaction

(message), a 2nd or 3rd level by-product of the brain-body complex entering the pre-requisite

physiological state for non-local transmission/reception (i.e. antenna-tuning artifact), or, as TGD

seems to imply, these biophoton bursts represent a (potentially quantifiable) signature

of macroscopic entanglement - in which case we should expect to detect it in a broad

range of non-local phenomena, and possibly in the vicinity of inanimate targets as well

as that of the senders. If particle accelerators have been so instrumental in allowing us to

probe quantum-level structures and interactions, can we envision a day when non-local

"collisions" (entanglement) will be engineered under highly controlled conditions and predictions

tested on the basis of biophoton signatures? For now, it is worth mentioning one possible piece

of supporting evidence- namely the observation that the Laogong point temperature of distant

qi receivers increases during transmission (Chen & al 2001) - which may be a result of

Pitkanen's ME/EM bridge generation.

Are biophotons the currency of entanglement, or is the signal strictly informational, with the

resultant heat generation only an endogenous physiological response to this subtle contact?

Of course, the question of "energy generation at the receiver end" could more easily be

answered by using an inanimate object as target, but how would we establish the moment

of contact?

In a typical qigong/remote healing experiment, the truth is that we are most often unable to

distinguish between intervals of "state preparation/readiness" and intervals of actual contact

with the target - even assuming that a trivial time-line is involved. Alpha-wave entrainment

between sender and receiver has been suggested before as a possible contact signature

(Sidorov 2002), given that the onset-window is relatively narrow (10-17sec, according to

Yamamoto). Alternatively, other physiological parameters can also be used (i.e. heart rate,

skin conductance fluctuations, skin temperature, etc). However, most of these changes

were demonstrated as significant only on a statistical level, and their onset may not be nearly

as obvious on a case to case basis. Therefore we propose another method: a

psychophysiological approach to remote viewing in which full-body and target photon

emissions would be time-plotted against the subject's real-time account of their

perceptions, then analyzed according to a feedback hit/miss judgment scheme:

assuming that the data is reported almost simultaneously with the act of perception,

and that "hit elements" represent the hypothesized entanglement between subject

and target, it would be most interesting to see if particular photon emission patterns

can be discerned in conjunction with this entanglement in the vicinity of either subject

or target. Furthermore, we propose that a supplementary battery of tests be carried

out on the subject and analyzed against the same hit/miss scheme: parameters should

include not only functional brain imaging data, but also structural/configurational

changes in living tissues, such as might be observable under Ho's polarized light

microscopy technique (for example, choosing a small living target and placing it under

the microscope during the RV session, or observing the viewer's finger capillary bed

for possible increases in molecular coherence during "target contact/hit" intervals).

Another interesting parameter to follow might be the Laogong point biophoton emission - is

there a significant drop or peak associated with "hits"? Similar approaches could be taken with

respect to our earlier question regarding the physiological pathways of "normal" versus remote

viewing: for example, SQUID/fMRI/full body BPE tracings could be compared in the case of

conventional versus "remote" viewing of a simple target - say, a red circle. These studies might

offer some preliminary insights into the body areas that are most active during such perceptual

tasks and further indicate any overlaps in the neural pathways taken by such sensory versus

"extrasensory" inputs.

It would appear thus that the study of biomolecular conformation changes and biophoton

emission hold the clue to both anomalous cognition and distant healing, not to mention other

forms of PK. The fact that biophoton emissions have been shown to be so sensitive to

changes in metabolic and physiological states make this a particularly attractive area of

experimental investigation with respect to qigong effects on biological systems. At the same

time, it needs to be re-emphasized that such studies challenge both the limits of our intuitive

intelligence and those of the scientific community's tolerance for new modes of thinking: and

while further progress is inconceivable without such challenges, we are unlikely to surmount

either of them unless meaningful, sustained dialogue is initiated among all concerned workers

in parapsychology, physics and alternative medicine.



The conclusion emerging from the above discussion is a remarkable departure from our

current paradigm: what it suggests is that Mind as the locus of perceptual processing is not

limited to the brain's activity, but is a state function of the entire organism, with the structural

configuration of endodermal and mesodermal tissues playing as relevant a role as that of the

neural system. The orientation of lipids in cellular membranes, the configuration of polypeptide

chains and the soliton excitations of DNA molecules by as little as one photon - all these

constantly fluctuating local parameters are echoed and amplified within the body's

electromagnetic control hologram, continuously modulating the organism's sensitivity to

exogenous and endogenous information. Super-sensitive (RV) and super-efficient states

(Bigu) are not merely the result of intellectual training, but the gradual molding of the entire

organism's structural, physiological and metabolic pathways into highly coherent,

information-transparent transducers.

The quest to understand our healing potential leads to inquiries into the nature and

organization of living systems (Becker, Popp); the desire to understand spontaneously

occurring psi phenomena leads to deep questions about the phase space of reality and

our ability to navigate it more intelligently (LaBerge, Pitkanen). Indeed, as Pitkanen suggests

throughout his monumental "Topological Geometrodynamics", the illusion of our locality

is perpetuated by the data fed to us by our senses - that is, those perceptions we are

habituated to pay attention to. Sight, hearing, touch, smell, taste: these are borders of our

Self, and the only senses we are willing to assign meaning to. Everything else that crosses the

horizon of our consciousness is neatly classified into fact, emotion, or fantasy - with the latter

two carrying practically no weight in our top information-processing center. Yet the examples

listed above are only a modest sample of the vast informational resources which lay hidden in

the unexplored manifolds of the mind-body continuum. In fact, with perception and visualization

occupying part of the the same neural processing pathways, can we tell with absolute certainty

that what we take for "meaningless" imagination is not, indeed, actual perception of entangled

realities? In the end, the study of nature and of our potentials become entwined - and at this

point we have to pause and ponder the direction of our future scientific exploration.

Swann suggested that the Mind may turn out to be something quite different from the meaning

currently assigned to it (as that part of the brain's activity which is responsible for reasoning,

memory, sensory integration and other high-level functions) - in fact that "many or most of the

attributes assigned to it in theory or hypothesis might better be allocated to some other

undiscovered or unacknowledged dynamic system within the overall human make-up."

(Swann 1999). Indeed, the arguments presented in this paper offer more than adequate

support to his contention.

The overarching question of human potential science is one of control hierarchy - what are

the driving principles and regulatory functions in living systems? The current dogma looks no

further than the stochastic rules of random molecular motion and stereoscopic compatibility -

but we have seen (Gariaev, Ho) that this is far from a compelling and sufficient model.

One level above that, the living tissue appears to consist of coherent solid state domains,

where properties like semiconductivity, piezo- and photoelectricity, coupled energy cycles

and attractive forces between molecules with similar vibration frequencies begin to account

for the sensitivity, responsiveness and energy efficiency of organisms.

The very structure and organization of living tissues is, however, itself regulated by that

master molecule, the DNA. The genetic system (consisting, to be more accurate, of an

equidirectional translation function which may start equally well with DNA, RNA or protein)

reveals itself as a complex, multidimensional code with both local (codon) and global (context),

material (nucleotide) and field-like (EM hologram) parameters, all of which are mutually

interdependent and at the same time subject to external, environmental influences (see

Becker's exogenous DC fields and neuro-epidermal junction currents, or Kangeng/Gariaev's

photon field localization).

The existence of a fourth level is prefigured by DNA experiments such as those of Yan Xin

and Glen Rein and by the extraordinary successes of Guo Lin and Binhui He's qigong

applications to late stage cancer (see Chen & He 2002), all of which suggest that the

mind can override and reverse genetic expression programs - perhaps via Becker's

digital -->analog (action potential -->perineural) interface, or perhaps via our hypothesized

LC-transducer structural modulations, or both. This is the level on which mind-body medicine

most probably works, and the one we should focus our attention on in the coming decades.

It's also interesting to remark that as we rise along this hierarchy, the control systems

become increasingly non-material (in other words, as the scale of their domain increases,

the actual substrate of the regulatory mechanism becomes increasingly abstract). It thus becomes

unavoidable to pose the question "what about a fifth hierarchical stratum?" Can we envision the

mind being modulated in turn by an overriding regulatory system? Up until recently this question

(easily disguised under the rubric of "free will") would have landed unceremoniously in the pile of

great but inherently rhetorical questions philosophers have been toying with for millennia. But as

we find ourselves increasingly drawn into the puzzle of complexity and self-organization, meaningful

answers are beginning to emerge from some very disparate fields of study.

Popp and Chang (1998) have shown that the DNA was able to tune into the nodal points of an

electromagnetic field (much like an antenna system or the phase conjugation effect of polarizable

matter), leading to an extension of coherent states. In a daring speculation, they suggest that this

may be the basis of evolution ("what we call consciousness is the process of 'tuning into' this

coherent field which exists within us as well as at least a part of the environment"), and that

"the boundary between the external world and 'I' may then be just fixed by the border

between destructive and constructive interference".

Computer scientist Peter Marcer has proposed a theory in which perception is arrived at

through a process of phase conjugation, whereby the interference pattern between the

perceiver's coherent wave-field and the reflected wave is converted to an image which is

coincident with the object itself. Furthermore, memory storage in such a model is

holographic, employing physical simulations of processes rather than the conventional

(and less efficient) coding sequences. In a similar vein, Laszlo's quantum holographic

universe model (Ho 1998, 1997) proposes that the activities of living organisms leave

traces (quantum interferences) in the zero point field, which become part of the collective

consciousness of all organisms - thus that our memories may be stored not in our brain,

but in a delocalized manner, in a collective holographic memory field. Taking these ideas

one step further, Ho suggests that the source of Marcer's coherent wave-field is the body's

own LC matrix, and that the coherence of our individual fields make it possible to view our

mind/body consciousness as systems capable of long-term entanglement - accounting, as

Laszlo proposed, for the puzzle of synchronicities. The entanglement of individual selves

into social aggregates places us in a greater environment of factorizable coherence which

reproduces the conditions of the body organization at a larger scale.

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