Journal of Nonlocality and Remote Mental Interactions February 2003 Vol II Nr 1

Entanglement and Decoherence Aspects in Remote Viewing: a Topological Geometrodynamics Approach

Lian Sidorov

"intent is the glue that holds RV together"

Joseph McMoneagle

"the structure of the multiverse is determined by information flow"

David Deutsch

Abstract: Topological geometrodynamics (Pitkanen) states that p-adic mathematics can be used to assign genuine information measures to material and cognitive structures and to describe information flow between them at a topological level modeling the fundamental control mechanisms of both inert and living systems. This article explores the implications of the TGD cosmology for remote mental interactions, showing how TGD can be seen as a more powerful generalization of quantum computation. A general mechanism for remote viewing is proposed, in an attempt to account for both ideal and erroneous functioning modes and to link these to a neurophysiological and metabolic picture. Finally, a number of experimental tests and practical applications are suggested, with a special emphasis on improving the accuracy and reliability of RV data.

Keywords: anomalous cognition, sensory fragmentation, non-determinism, quantum computing, error correcting codes, operating gates, decoherence, entanglement bridges, massless extremals, pseudo-Feynman diagrams, sensory processing pathways


Some preliminary observations: errors and error-correcting modes in RV

Quantum computing and its properties

Basic TGD principles; implications for spacetime and conscious interactions

Remote viewing circuits

Further testing and applications


Appendix: Objections against the identification of quantum brain as standard quantum computer by M. Pitkanen

I. Introduction

In the three decades since its introduction into the modern vocabulary, the term "remote viewing" has come to signify many things to many people: while its basic definition ("the acquisition and description, by mental means, of information blocked from ordinary perception by distance, shielding or time"*) is easily quoted by both supporters and detractors, it is often surprising to realize how few individuals on both sides of the argument understand its implications. The protocol at the heart of RV, which states that the viewer and everyone present during the collection of the RV data must be completely blind to the nature of the target, is in effect the functional definition of remote viewing, which separates the body of scientific evidence from the facile claims of sensationalism and self-delusion.

Why should we make this point at the very beginning of our discussion? The reason is sadly evident to those who have spent any part of their career engaged in parapsychological research (see IEEE Symposia p.xxv-xxvi; McMoneagle 2002, p.132; Radin 1997, p3-9): in no other discipline are ridicule and accusations of fraud based on so little factual understanding of the research material. Why bother to read the methodology, why pay attention to the scores of meta-analyses, why respond to repeated invitations to observe and criticize an experimental design - when we know a priori that these results cannot be true? That seems to be the reasoning among most physicists - the same people who, as David Deutsch notes, "suffer from a loss of nerve" when it comes to accepting the strangeness of quantum reality and who, "for the first time in history [...] refuse to believe what their reigning theory says about the world" (Folgers).

Yet it is precisely to the physics community that these studies in anomalous cognition and anomalous perturbation should be most meaningful. Anyone who has taken the time to review the research literature which has accumulated in this field over the past eight decades understands that the question is no longer "whether", but "how". The consistency of distant mental interactions over a wide spectrum of applications ranging from remote viewing to medical Qigong reminds one of last century's "two minor clouds on the scientific horizon": in spite of our efforts, it seems that mere manipulation of the standard model will not make them disappear. These results lead back to some of the most intractable problems in fundamental physics - such as the measurement problem, the nature of time, non-locality and the quantum/relativity interface. For example, QM theory implies that observation, hence consciousness, interfaces with matter in some "mysterious way" which causes the collapse of the quantum wave function and ultimately affects the localization of a quantum system in a definite state. The evidence from parapsychology (in particular remote viewing and Qigong) suggests that these effects are not restricted to the forbiddingly small and fragile quantum scale, but manifest on a level where our intervention can become part of the experiment in a much more controlled and robust way. The existence of these effects at the macroscopic level and the degree of mental control that one can learn to exert in the framework of such experiments means that, for the first time, we have the means to actively probe the "phase space" of mind-matter interactions. Such studies could represent a royal road to our understanding of spacetime and the testing of alternative cosmological models.

Even within the mainstream, there is today a growing understanding that the current physics platform needs to be expanded. But so far the search for a new, powerful model has suffered from what we could call a lack of ontological direction and an unwillingness to open more than one can of worms at a time. Thus our attempts reduce to stretching and patching current models, for example focusing on engineering a junction between relativity and quantum theory - while other deeply disturbing symptoms of model fatigue continue to be ignored. More precisely, some problems have been resurrected once we found a technical, instead of philosophical way to formulate them (see quantum computing and information teleportation instead of non-locality); while other symptoms are still too embarrassing to be mentioned in polite company (see observer effect).

As it turns out, these difficult and persistent questions are historically related through the work of three people, whose great insight was that information flow might be intimately linked with the structure of spacetime, in addition to that of material systems. Although this radical new paradigm has lead to two different cosmological interpretations (see Parallel Universes for Everett and Deutsch, and Topological Geometrodynamics for Pitkanen), the theoretical leap signifies the same thing: for the first time we have a framework in which consciousness is no longer the uninvited guest disrupting the conference with annoying party tricks, but a legitimate and essential "founding father".

In this paper we shall try to present an argument for such an alternative cosmology (Matti Pitkanen's Topological Geometrodynamics), based on a series of general observations from the available literature on remote viewing and other forms of anomalous cognition. This is far from a comprehensive model, but it lays a foundation for a theoretical framework combining physical and cognitive structures as fundamental, interchangeable quanta of reality. It is our hope that this rather naive argument will act as a stimulus for our readers to examine the proposals of TGD in the full detail of their implications for particle physics, biophysics and information theory.


* CRV Manual

II. Some preliminary observations: errors and error-correcting modes in RV

Our point of departure shall be a basic phenomenon that has been noted almost universally by those involved in experimental telepathy and remote viewing: that of mental contagion. In short, the term refers to the transmission of mental images from one participant to another without the conscious intent to do so (Warcollier 2001, Warcollier 1927, 1928; Targ & Katra; CRV manual; Swann 1996a; Jaegers)

Although telepathic overlay, as this type of noise is known in RV terminology, clearly constitutes an impediment to accurate data collection, we would like to argue that it has been too easily dismissed as a "problem" and that its value in understanding the mechanics of remote mental interactions can hardly be overestimated. In fact, it serves to remember that RV has historically developed on a solid foundation laid by Rene Warcollier and his decades of experimental research with group telepathy: clearly while the application focus is different in RV, there is much to be learned from Warcollier's insights. Whatever the nature of the signal line between viewer and target, the initial contact is clearly dependent on the mental interactions of the participants ("intent is the glue that holds RV together") and that alone justifies a more serious analysis of group mental interactions.

In "La telepathie experimentale" (Revue Metapsychique, 1926-1927), Warcollier discusses his series of studies with batteries of senders and recipients, noting that "the most extraordinary observation we have made [under our experimental conditions] is that the percipients have very frequently shared identical spontaneous images (perceived visually or intuitively) whose origin remained unknown." Also - "Their lack of coherence seemed to indicate an origin external to the experimenters, but that was doubtlessly only an appearance. Our 1923 experiences [...] have revealed very numerous cases of analogous perception between the percipients, which were altogether independent from those that the agent intended to transmit. It was a true mental contagion of errors [...] probably [...] the transmission of a [...] fragmentary, subconscious thoughts of one of the percipients"

We have extensively quoted from this article because the phenomenon in question is here, more than anywhere else in the literature, treated as a meaningful datum and deliberately observed across an extensive series of experiments. Nevertheless, while others have failed to accord it a similar significance, they still made note of it in a variety of experimental settings ranging from remote viewing (where it can manifest as both perception of other participants' thoughts, or as identification of unknown viewers tasking the same target outside the experiment); to forensic psychometry; to simultaneous dream telepathy (Targ and Katra; Mars p. 103, 106-8; Ullman & Krippner p17, 66-67; Jaegers; CRV manual).

It would appear that the possibility of telepathic "contamination" is a universal feature of remote mental interactions: as long as a common point, or node is shared by several participants, there seems to be at least a finite time interval for which information can flow bi-directionally along all established mental "bridges". At this point, however, the notion of nodes and bridges is still ill-defined: we shall try to reach a more concrete understanding of this blueprint in sections III and IV.

It is also useful, at the start of this discussion, to realize that some form of critical mass effect is often noted in remote mental interactions: for example, in an experiment conducted by Dr. Arden Mahlberg, a Wisconsin psychologist, subjects showed that they were able to learn the Morse code much faster than an alternative code designed for the purpose of this experiment - even though the two codes had the same level of complexity. In a series of controlled experiments conducted between 1983-1985, Rupert Sheldrake has shown that difficult-to-discern patterns became much easier to spot for the first time by test subjects all over the world after several million people had been shown the answer on a local TV broadcast. These effects are not restricted to humans: as early as 1923, Russian physiologist Pavlov ran a series of studies in mice where he taught them to run to a feeding place when a bell was rung: to his surprise, the first generation required an average 300 trials to learn, the second 100, the third 30, and the fourth only 10. (Borland 2000; Gilman 1986). Similar results have been obtained in other animal models, such as monkey populations on isolated islands, where newly learned behavior suddenly spread from one population to the others, despite the absence of direct communication.

It therefore becomes clear that any model claiming to elucidate the mechanism of anomalous cognition must go beyond the mere invocation of a shared Single Mind and show how the individual modules of this universal mind communicate with each other. That information is shared non-locally is clear: but whether and when this information is available at a given point in the global matrix is far less obvious. It is this question that will be the central focus of our argument.

Let us then continue by listing a few more well-known empirical observations:

- remote viewing appears to be an intrinsically non-deterministic process: even the best viewers agree that the expected accuracy rarely surpasses 70% on a consistent basis, but that this value may fluctuate wildly and unpredictably. While the reliability of the data tends to increase with practice, failures can and do occur even after decades of rigorous professional training (McMoneagle 2000 p. 205, 209; McMoneagle 1997 p 216), but they may also alternate with direct hits. In other words, while the mental and physical state of the viewer may negatively influence results, a perceived optimal state in a highly trained viewer is still not a guarantee of success. Unlike musical or athletic training, where "great form" can be cultivated and expected to yield relatively consistent results over a given period, no such expectation is a valid assumption in RV. (McMoneagle 1997 p. 230; McMoneagle 2000, p33-35; McMoneagle 2002 p. 82 )

- like telepathic signals, remote viewing data arrives in a range of sensory modalities (visual imagery, tactile feelings, sounds, tastes, smells, even electrical or magnetic fields - in addition to emotional and conceptual information (Targ and Katra) and displays heavy fragmentation. While in his work Warcollier has noted the predilection of certain percipients for consistent types of distortions (Warcollier 2001, p 61), introducing the notion of signal processing as a function of the percipient's psychophysiological profile (the parallel with psychoanalysis is unavoidable), we would like to focus our attention on the very nature of this fragmentation: why, if a contact with the target has presumably been established, should the signal suffer this much breakdown and modification? Note that the problem is not merely analogous to "static noise" or intermittent break-up - the data is literally scrambled: the color or texture of an object may not arrive at the same time with or be association with the shape of the object, an image may be transmitted as an abstract concept or a symbol, details may figure more prominently than the central concept, associated functions, motion or emotions may manifest before or without any grasp of the physical object; the orientation of the target is often reversed, or the size grossly under/overestimated; etc. (Warcollier 2001 p xxxvii, xl, 31; McMoneagle 1997, 2000; Targ & Katra; IEEE Symposia p 29, 46; McMoneagle 2002, p. 99, 191)

In a 1927 article ("Ce qui se transmet", Revue Metapsychique, 5, pp 355-373) Warcollier lists his results with respect to data fragmentation in a series of 35 telepathic experiments:

- transmission of shape alone or color - in 7 cases

- transmission of movement or the idea of movement - 5 cases

- isolated details of form without comprehension (integration) - 1 case

- transmission of the form or part of the form with subconscious integration - hence transmission of the idea or part of the idea - 14 cases

- transmission of the concept of part of the concept - 6 cases

- complete transmission with understanding of both form and idea - 2 cases

In general, he notes that "forms, either verbal or graphical, are occasionally communicated, irrespective of the thought they state, and thoughts may also be conveyed independently from words" ("La transmission de la pensee et la pensee", Revue Metapsychique, II, 7, pp25-38, 1958)

Other general patterns of data retrieval include (Warcollier 2001):

- the dispersion of lines and angles of geometric figures (a square perceived as several straight angles)

- the frequent injection of movement into static images ("the movement factor usually takes dominance over other aspects of what is perceived")

- a spontaneous grouping of similar elements or details of a picture ("like seeks like")

- "syncretism", or the "perception of the configurational character [...] of the image without the details"

- a "tendency toward organization" of the data

- a frequent inability to discern the relative significance of target image and its background, with a resultant mixing of perceptions

In our opinion, even taking into account the subconscious processing invoked by Warcollier, Swann (1996, 1997, 1999) and other investigators, it is not at all clear why such signal transformations and re-associations should take place - if we assumed that the percipient simply tapped into someone else's mind, or into a greater, collective consciousness.

- At the same time, it it known by practically every student of RV that the symbols and ideograms through which the subconscious communicates its preliminary impressions about the target "change all the time" (McMoneagle 1997 p. 67; McMoneagle 2000, p. 117; Warcollier 2001). It is not uncommon for a symbol to denote one perceptual aspect over a number of sessions, only to abruptly change its significance after a certain period of time. Such abrupt transitions suggest that some form of continual remodeling takes place in the association areas involved in RV signal processing, based most likely on a combination of subconscious inputs, conscious outputs and session feedback.

- Another observation is that "telepathic communication is not instantaneous", that "the telepathic image is not received at the same moment it is sent" (Warcollier 2001, p7). This period of latency, as Warcollier calls it, can last from several seconds to several days. Corroborating evidence seems to be offered by a series of DMILS experiments in Japan, where a lag of 10-17 seconds was observed between the EEG alpha synchronization of sender and percipient when the message was sent blindly from a sensory shielded room (Yamamoto & al. 1997, 1999). Although the study found no consciousawareness of the time of transmission by the percipient, the statistically significant EEG synchronization demonstrates a subconscious contact - suggesting that the lag in the establishment of the contact has less to do with the mental readiness of the receiver than with some other, possibly intrinsic aspect of the transmission. So far there has been little attention accorded to this phenomenon, although both anomalous cognition and psychokinesis studies are replete with such observations. Nor are there any theoretical models, among those that have been proposed, that are specific enough to provide a possible answer to this dilemma. Merely postulating additional dimensions and "superluminal communication" does not explain why such a lag should exist.

- unless specifically tasked, the results of a particular remote viewing session are often pre- or retro-cognitive with respect to the present moment (in other words, the viewer may "land" at a past or future time coordinate on the target's world line). Even when the time frames are relatively well defined, some degree of bleed-through from the immediate past or immediate future of the targeted windows can be expected (McMoneagle 2000 p. 158). Finally, a trained viewer can easily translate bi-directionally along this time axis by simply redirecting (re-tasking) his goal.

Early in his training, McMoneagle realized that when the location and time/date of the event to be targeted were very clearly tasked, "there was an immediate and dramatic jump in the amount of correct data" obtained from the session (Mind Trek p. 71). Later on, it became clear that "there [was no] difference between past, present and future information" - all three were "equally accessible" (McMoneagle 1997 p.110, 135; McMoneagle 2000 p. 152; IEEE Symposia, p. xviii). A eloquent example in this respect is a remote viewing session in which all three viewers independently described the same correct target, but at what appeared to be vastly different epochs in its history. (McMoneagle 1997 p 114)

This is a challenge on several levels - for it concerns not only the availability of information regarding future events, but also the apparently arbitrary nature, or the indistinguishability of past, present and future from the point of view of information. Why is the mind not able to tell the difference between what has already happened, what exists - and that which is still in the future? The current explanation for this phenomenon involves communication along a so-called feedback loop (McMoneagle 1997 p. 109, 112, 253). However, future feedback is not always available to the viewer, yet that does not preclude successful psi function (McMoneagle 2002 p.183; Targ and Katra). Furthermore, experiments have been conducted in which the viewers successfully described targets that were randomly selected by a computer only after the completion of the RV session (McMoneagle 2002 p. 257; Radin p.103). One final observation is that viewers are often attracted to "target areas" with higher emotional contents, which may lead to displacement both spatially and temporally (Smith, Houck): for example, unless the time frame is clearly specified, a viewer tasked with a hidden picture of an open field may describe that location as it was 10 years ago, when a building present at the site might have burned down.

- a similar shift in perspective (translation) can be effected with respect to spatial position: a target can be viewed at will from any angle or distance and at any scale - from the sub-atomic to the astronomic (McMoneagle 1997 p.155, 246; McMoneagle 2000 p 91; IEEE p 47; McMoneagle 2002 p. 215) and data which would not be available had the viewer stood in front of the target can be accurately described (for example, the color of an object inside an opaque box with no light that could give it any color at all - Targ and Katra) . This suggests that the information is not restricted to already existing mental images and information available to other individuals - that some form of direct probing of the physical target, a true mind-matter interaction, is involved AND/OR that some truly remarkable computational activity takes place in such a way that the discrete data distributed over the minds of all individuals associated with the target can be integrated across a continuous spectrum of states.

- "in almost all cases of spontaneous telepathy, the agent and the percipient are in a family or friendship relation" (Warcollier, "L'accord Telepathique", Revue Metapshychique, 4, 1928 pp. 286-306). Warcollier lists several additional factors that, in his experience, have been shown to enhance the sharing of mental images:

- situations where several individuals concentrate on the same object or person

- situations where several persons perceive different, but similar objects

- cases where several persons share the same preoccupations or aspirations

At the same time he notes that, when several senders are involved, it is impossible to distinguish what the source of the message is; and reciprocally, "an agent working with several percipients [will not succeed in] influencing only one of them at the expense of the others" - sometimes the entire group will receive the image and sometimes only several members who were not the designated targets. At any rate, as long as the potential percipients remain focused on the sender, the information appears to spread laterally throughout the network and without control by the sender (ibid.)

- "When the intentions of the participants are not unified, there will be a higher degree of failure" (McMoneagle 1997, p 136). The corollary of this statement, however, is a truly remarkable property of "remote viewing networks": when the protocol is well defined and everyone's intent is clear, something akin to an error-correcting code in quantum circuits takes place. As McMoneagle describes it "There are hundreds of examples from fifteen years of remote viewing that point to this truth. Coordinates have been incorrectly read, but the target rightly described; the spelling of a target's name is wrong, but the information is correct about the targeted individual; the system breaks down at the last minute and a target envelope isn't put where it is expected to be, but the description of the target is accurate anyway; and there are many other examples. Intent appears to be a sort of magical cord which strings all the elements together; it's what makes the remote viewing effort work." (ibid.)

- The quality of the remote viewing appears to be independent of spatial separation between subject and target (Targ & Katra)

- Electromagnetic shielding by Faraday cage or deep sea water does not appear to interfere with function - although it is known that extremely low frequency em fields can penetrate such shields ( Targ & Katra; Rubik 2000; Grotz)

- the spatial resolution appears to be easily adjustable - targets ranging from 1 millimeter to planetary size (Targ & Katra; McMoneagle 1997) have been correctly identified and described

- there is a clearly demonstrated increase (approx. 380%) in anomalous cognition (AC) effect size within +/-1 hour of local sidereal time and an inverse correlation between AC performance and geomagnetic fluctuations over this window of time (Spottiswoode)

- finally, there is a vast amount of literature demonstrating that statistically significant changes occur in living targets' physiology and behavior, even when they are not consciously aware of being targeted. We have already mentioned the Yamamoto alpha synchronization studies; similar EEG results have been obtained in several independent studies by Hirasawa; Kawano; Cohen (Sidorov 2002a); and Tart; Lloyd; Bisaha and Dunne; and May, Targ and Puthoff (IEEE p 24). Other parameters that have consistently demonstrated statistical susceptibility to distant mental effects include galvanic skin response, finger blood volume, blood pressure, as well as fish orientation and algae motility (IEEE p 23, Delanoy 1993, Benor p 336; Sidorov 2002a)

Although such a list of RV properties could be further extended, let us stop here and see what preliminary conclusions can be drawn at this point. Beyond the obvious implications of non-local information transfer, access to both physical and cognitive representations, and the apparent violation of causality suggested by pre-cognitively viewing a target that will only later by chosen by a random number generator, the next salient feature that emerges is that this information transfer appears to be a little more complex than a mere “access to the universal Mind”, or to that “extra dimension where there is zero separation” between objects in time and space. While these suggestions may indeed be part of a comprehensive model, in and by themselves they fail to account for the very errors which characterize RV function almost without exception. These errors have most often been attributed to our imperfect, perhaps degenerate sensory processing apparatus (see Swann); but that alone cannot fully justify the irreducible indeterminacy and the accuracy plateau described by very experienced viewers like McMoneagle; or the tremendous data fragmentation and multisensory scrambling that universally describe the RV experience; or the phenomenon of signal contamination, especially when dealing with subsequent, rather than simultaneous, psychometric readings. All these observations suggest that local, “horizontal” interactions, and criticality, are an intrinsic part of the mechanism, modulating whatever transcendental access we may have to a reality “outside spacetime”. In fact, it should be by now clear that the paradigm most closely approximating what happens in a remote viewing protocol is that of a computer circuit - more specifically, a quantum neural network. The error-correcting "code" as a function of correlations, the scrambling and fragmentation of the data, the residual "fingerprinting" left by other viewers, and the intrinsically non-deterministic nature of the "computation" are only some of the major features that RV and Q-circuits seem to share.

Let us then, in the following section, take a closer look at quantum circuits and their properties and see how far the analogy can be stretched.

III. Quantum computing and its properties

Quantum information science (QIS) is a relatively new field which deals with the possibility of using quantum mechanics to vastly increase the information storage capacity, modeling power and computational speed of future generation computers. The foundations of QIS were laid in the 70s by the likes of Richard Feynman and Charles Bennett; in 1985 David Deutsch proposed that a quantum computer could eventually be derived from the laws of physics as a universal computing device capable of simulating any and every physical system; but it wasn’t until the mid-90s that the theoretical tools and industry motivation converged to create an explosion of interest in practical models for quantum computers - in parallel with the increasingly popular idea that, perhaps, consciousness and the universe itself behaved like one (1; Nielsen; Hameroff; Mitchell)

It is beyond the scope of this paper to go into the full argument for and against this idea, although a number of relevant comments may be found in the Appendix. Suffice it to say that, in general, the major problem encountered by both computer engineers and neuroscientists attempting to build a viable model based on quantum mechanic principles is the same: that is, the system cannot be effectively isolated from its surroundings and undergoes rapid decoherence as a result. However, the possibilities opened by quantum computation are of such importance, that major efforts (such as the development of optical cavities, optical lattices and trapped atomic ions) are currently under way to find viable solutions to this problem.

Why are quantum circuits so powerful? Simply put, because they encode information not in a series of binary, 0/1 bits, but in qubits - quantum structures that can exist in a superposition of states and which can be entangled with other qubits. The properties which emerge from this are quite remarkable when contrasted with the current, digital paradigm:

- the complexity of quantum information ensures that even very small circuits (of a few hundred qubits) are endowed with a tremendous computational power significantly exceeding that of the most powerful digital computers in existence today

- the amount of communication between sub-modules that is required to perform certain distributed operations is drastically reduced;

- the time required to find the prime factors of a very large number, or to search for a particular item on a list, is vastly shortened;

- modeling the evolution of complex physical interactions, such as quantum many-body systems, becomes feasible;

- the privacy of quantum communications can be ensured by principles of fundamental physics: whereas current encryption methods rest on the difficulty of factorizing large numbers, in a quantum computer system the very act of “eavesdropping” would leave an indelible fingerprint on the system. In other words, while classical information can be read and copied without being disturbed, every reading/measurement on a quantum system leaves a detectable imprint;

- while in classical systems one can say that information is retrieved by reading one page at a time, in a quantum system the information resides not on the pages, but in the correlations between them: reading one page, or one qubit by itself, is meaningless;

- at the same time, this organization makes it possible to encode information in a more robust way, in multiple correlations, such that a certain degree of perturbation is allowable before the information is lost or corrupted. This is the basis for quantum fault-tolerant methods and error-correcting features which are of major importance to a variety of cybernetic and life processes (see Miller & al.; Gariaev 2002a,b; Sidorov 2002b)

- quantum entanglement is also the key to communication protocols such as quantum teleportation, in which a quantum state is instantly transferred between two arbitrarily widely separated locations, such that an identical copy is created at the receiving end while the original is destroyed

If these properties sound familiar to the RV student, it is because they indeed present striking parallels to the typical remote viewing scenario: the emergence of meaning (re: target ID and features) through correlations between participants which are otherwise blind to it; the ability to rapidly identify a target from a technically infinite list of possibilities; the effect of other viewers on the session (contagion, energy signatures); the intrinsic unpredictability of the process, and the potential for error self-correction that McMoneagle describes - all these major puzzles of RV seem to derive naturally from the q-computing paradigm.

But to construct a viable model, we need to define the elements of such a quantum circuit. Do they consist of individual minds alone? If that were the case, how would we explain the access to and probing of inanimate targets? What are the correlates of entanglement? What are the laws governing when, how and for how long these connections are made? What are the operational gates? And finally, given the problem of decoherence and the difficulty of constructing even the most elementary quantum circuit, how can we make the leap to a network encompassing our entire planet - and possibly the entire universe? (see McMoneagle 1997 - Mars session)

To answer these questions we need to first make a detour and explore an alternative cosmological model.

IV. Basic TGD principles; implications for spacetime and conscious interactions

A full description of Matti Pitkanen’s Topological Geometrodynamics is available at http://blues.helsinki.fi/~matpitka/ (also see articles in this issue). In this section we shall present a very simplified synopsis, focusing on those aspects of TGD that may pertain to remote mental interactions - in particular remote viewing. It is also fair to say that some of our conclusions may diverge from the current interpretation of TGD (see Appendix) - however this model is still evolving and it is our hope that future experiments based on its predictions will allow us to refine the theoretical picture.

The central idea of TGD might well be summarized by the following statement: "p-adic mathematics can be used to assign genuine information measures to material and cognitive structures and to describe information flow between them at a topological level modeling the fundamental control mechanisms of both inert and living systems." The implications of this relatively obscure assertion, if followed to their logical conclusion, are nothing short of revolutionary: what they suggest is that there are deep symmetries between the laws of number theory, physics, information theory and that intractable, paradox-ridden property of living systems - consciousness; that the dynamics governing the evolution of both matter and consciousness can be reduced to a few essential principles; and that the overall matrix of this mind-matter "universal operator", or evolutionary blueprint, can be filled in by making use of these fundamental symmetries.

The TGD universe (which was born of an attempt to construct a Poincare invariant theory of gravitation) consists of an 8-dimensional manifold, a Cartesian product of 4-D Minkowskian spacetime and SU(3)/U(2) - the complex projective space of two complex dimensions. This leads to a geometrization of all basic interactions. In addition, the featureless space of General Relativity is replaced by a "topological condensate" of 3-D surfaces representing matter/spacetime quanta, which are "glued" to each other by various operations (i.e. wormhole contacts and join-along boundary bonds such as massless extremals - see Fig. 1). At the first level of the hierarchy quarks condensate to hadrons, hadrons to nuclei, nuclei and electrons to atoms, etc - each of these systems representing a 3-D surface with boundary. The condensation into increasingly larger systems via join-along boundary bonds provides a topological mechanism for the generation of coherent quantum systems from smaller units. Thus, instead of "space containing matter", we have a very complex topology in which the outer boundaries of material objects correspond to the boundaries of this 3-D space.

Fig. 1 TGD spacetime consists of topological condensates

(courtesy of M. Pitkanen)

The quantization of spacetime leads to a quantization of fields; an important example are magnetic flux tubes of CP-2 thickness (10^4 Planck lengths) - cosmic string-like objects carrying a very strong magnetic field and defining a complex network pervading the entire universe. Magnetic flux tubes are superconductors in the direction of the tube, therefore such a network could be seen as roughly analogous to a magnetic nervous system of the universe. Other flux tubes accompany various atomic (material) spacetime sheets - for example those associated with axons have a thickness roughly equivalent to the cell size. It is likely that the flux tubes of the earth's magnetosphere are much thicker and split into narrower tubes inside organisms and other magnetically charged atomic surfaces at the earth's surface. "Dual" flux tubes (electrets) are another family of solutions, in which the electric field has a roughly constant magnitude but varying direction. Living systems are full of electrets: cell membranes, microtubules and liquid crystals are some of the most prevalent structures displaying this organization.

TGD spacetime naturally decomposes into regions obeying real and p-adic topologies; both real and p-adic spacetime sheets are labeled by characteristic primes. P-adic regions obey the same field equations as the real regions, but are characterized by p-adic non-determinism in addition to the non-determinism of the field equations. Thus TGD assigns to the former all material and field structures, sensory perceptions and memories; the latter correspond to cognitive and symbolic representations for real regions - i.e. intentions, abstract relationships, hopes, expectations, etc. In general, p-adic regions are mental structures (spacetime surfaces) corresponding to the front of volition - the pychological now.

P-adic regions are present in all length scales (even at the elementary particle level, where they would correspond to a type of primitive cognition) and provide a cognitive model of "self". In addition, p-adic-to-real phase transitions can be induced in quantum jumps and can be interpreted as transformation of intent to action, or sensory input to cognitive image.

In TGD, classical fields and matter form a pseudo-Feynman diagram in which the lines representing matter are replaced by spacetime sheets and virtual bosons are replaced by topological light rays ("massless extremals", MEs). MEs describe non-linear planewaves propagating with light velocity in such a way that the polarization is fixed in a given point of the spacetime surface (see Fig. 2.) MEs generate Kahler (geometrical) supracurrents which serve as a source of coherent photons.

a. b.

Fig. 2 a. The ends of the magnetic flux tube can act as mirrors at which topological light rays (MEs) are reflected. Magnetic flux tube oscillations can also amplify signals carried by MEs. b. MEs serve as field bridges between spacetime sheets and make possible both classical and quantum communication

(Courtesy of M. Pitkanen)

These massless extremals, which are created in quantum jumps between spin glass states (see below), represent geometrical correlates of entanglement and can connect both real and p-adic spacetime surfaces. Classical fields and coherent light propagate without dissipation along these ME bridges and interfere at the spacetime sheets representing the vertices of the Feynman diagram, where they induce dissipative processes like self-organization through the local modulation of Josephson currents and ionic flow equilibria (see Fig 3; also Pitkanen 2003b). This representation of spacetime is characterized by a strong fractality - with each vertex decomposing into another pseudo-Feynman diagram, etc, down to the fundamental length scale of a topological quantum, which is equivalent to approximately 10^4 Planck lengths.

Fig. 3 A and B are separate spacetime sheets interacting (communicating) via CP2 extremals (massless extremals) bridges at times t, t', t"

There are infinitely many types of massless extremals, but they can be generally classified as real vs p-adic, active vs. passive and low frequency vs. high frequency. Each of these types plays a specific role in the overall topological dynamic. For example, magnetic flux tubes connecting physical (real) objects on Earth to the magnetosphere or to each other can be accompanied by parallel Z^0 MEs which are passive in the sense that have no classical em field; they can however color rotate to active, em MEs as a result of qjumps. Low frequency real MEs are correlates of entanglement bridges between real spacetime surfaces, while high frequency em MEs travel along these bridges and induce dissipative self-organization at the opposite end (target). Real EEG-range MEs induce nerve pulse sequences with equal frequencies (frequency coding): these are produced when ions drop from magnetic flux tubes and the resulting cyclotron state decays; in the same process, most of the zero-point kinetic energy (much greater than the cyclotron energy) is liberated as high frequency MEs (i.e microwave range) which travel along low-frequency em MEs. P-adic ME bridges can also form as a result of entanglement and transform to real ME bridges: the energy requirement for such qjumps is extremely small and can be provided via several distinct mechanisms described by TGD.

The classical fields propagating along ME bridges are natural candidates for generating a hierarchy of holograms spanning the entire TGD manifold and connecting all real and p-adic spacetime surfaces into something akin to a universal holographic network. However, since not every unit is connected with every other unit, and since the type and time scale of the various types of MEs created in qjumps varies, this means that the system displays less than global transparency: at any time, various basins of coherence / partial holograms may be activated, but over the entire hierarchy there is less than 100% entanglement at any given moment (in other words, local regions vary between ordinary photographic to ideal holographic properties). When a unit receives strong stimulation, it activates other units with which it is connected by topological bridges: the greater the connectivity, the greater the secondary activation. Interference of the classical radiation fields propagating along the massless extremals and converging in a given point result in a local hologram, followed by formation of conscious mental images (like photographic film exposure) through the induction of a self-organization cascade at the level of the material spacetime surface: massless extremals induce breakdown of superconductivity at local magnetic flux tubes by creating bridges between these and the material (atomic) spacetime sheet, and this results in ion leakage from the flux tube to the atomic sheet, dissipation and self-organization (Fig. 4) In biosystems, this process is the basis for various ionic flow equilibria, including the ADP-ATP metabolic cycle and the generation of EEG waves (see Pitkanen 2003b).

Fig. 4. ME bridges allow ionic flows between spacetime sheets, leading to breakdown of superconductivity, dissipation and self-organization (Courtesy of M. Pitkanen)

A major implication of the topological quantization (granular nature) of spacetime and of the pseudo-Feynman representation is that classical fields traveling along ME entanglement bridges interfere only at the nodes - hence there is no loss of information produced by interference of signals everywhere. As we shall see, this presents definite advantages when trying to understand some of the paradoxical aspects of remote mental interactions, such as the non-attenuation of effect size with distance.

In TGD, "selves" are defined as sub-systems able to avoid entanglement with the environment (and hence decoherence) in subsequent quantum jumps. These semi-stable, bound states can be both material (atoms, molecules, organisms) and p-adic (individual mind)- defining an infinite hierarchy of organizational levels and "observers". One can assign to each subself of a given self a time scale resolution defined by its p-adic prime. The contents of a self's consciousness are determined as a subjecto-temporal average over quantum jumps from the moment of its emergence; that is, information is contained in quantum jumps over qhistories (realities) and is experienced as mental images. A typical mental image with duration 0.1 sec is a subjective average over many quantum jumps; in turn, mental images average out to produce "subselves”, and so on. The subselves of two separate selves can entangle, leading to a fused mental image that is shared by both selves - a unique TGD operation which forms the basis of neurophysiological phenomena like binding and the stereo- consciousness of the right and left visual fields, not to mention its significance for phenomena like remote viewing. One other important observation is that these entanglement operations appear to be phenomenologically different in different length scale resolutions: while entanglement between different hierarchy levels is theoretically possible, it is far less common than entanglement at the same level (an interesting parallel with Sheldrake's morphic resonance hypothesis).

The TGD universe is imbedded in a configuration space in which each point represents an alternative cosmology, a "world of worlds". Configuration space degrees of freedom can be divided into quantum fluctuating ones and zero modes. The latter represent a complete localization occurring in each quantum jump and these degrees of freedom are effectively classical. The presence of zero modes implies spin glass degeneracy: the system has a huge number of states which differ only slightly from each other (in gravitational energy). A "spin glass", or reduced configuration space, is one in which the spacetime surfaces have the same perceived geometry, differing only in terms of quantum fluctuations. Thus, our universe changes in each q-jump, but all these worlds appear equivalent - differing only in their relative gravitational energy. This translates into q-jumps at the p-adic and material level, which means that the vertices of the Feynman diagram exist in a superposition of states. The extreme degeneracy (practically infinite number of pseudo-equivalent states) of this superposition makes these vertices ideally suited for high information storage capacity: that is, we can regard the topological network of spacetime condensates and ME entanglement bridges as a universal quantum computer in which the qubits are replaced by real and p-adic "qupits".

This analogy to q-computation is however only an approximation and is offered here as a basis for understanding some of the principles that may be at work behind remote mental interactions (see Appendix). Because the TGD model of consciousness involves built-in features like macroscopic and macrotemporal coherence (see Pitkanen 2003a,b); spin-glass degeneracy of spacetime quanta; and the fusion of mental images (that is, of ensembles of q-jumps) via entanglement - it can be seen as a powerful generalization of q-computation (see Diagram 1) which makes it possible to extend these principles beyond elementary particle q-circuits, into the domain of biosystems' and consciousness' control hierarchies. For example, spin glass degeneracy provides a huge number of degrees of freedom making information storage and processing more effective than in the traditional q-computational models; also, for living systems, TGD laws such as the Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP) ensure that sequences of quantum jumps effectively bind to a single quantum jump, solving the decoherence problem encountered by current neurophysiological models and allowing biosystems to act as very powerful quantum computers (see Fig. 5a.b)

a. b.

Fig. 5 a. "Dissipative" communication between non-living A, B (i.e. A=light source, B=measurement instrument): q1, q2,q3... are contiguous quanta of 3-D space between A and B, connected by MEs which flicker in and out of existence with each world q-jump (10^-39sec); photons travel non-dissipatively along this composite ME bridge, but the intensity of the light reaching B depends on the number of complete A-B ME bridges; b. if A-B are living selves entangling p-adically (consciously), the resultant em ME bridge Aq1q2q3B has macrotemporal coherence (according to the Negentropy Maximization Principle) and there is no attenuation in signal strength. ( ____ represent real MEs, _ _ _ p-adic MEs)

The final major outcome of topological quantization that we shall address in this paper is the separation of geometrical and subjective time. Simply put, geometrical time is the physicist’s time - embedded in the metric of the 4-D world obtained with each q-jump in the global configuration space. Subjective time, on the other hand, is obtained as the conscious experience of a series of quantum jumps. Since there is a strict correlation between q-jumps at the world-of-worlds configuration space and q-jumps at the real and p-adic levels (with the latter representing essentially the flip side of “4-D universe jumping to new 4-D universe/point in the configuration space), the implications are quite remarkable, if somewhat unsurprising to those familiar with parapsychological data: it would appear that which new point in the configuration space the universe transitions to/ which history, or sequence of q-jumps is followed, is intimately connected to the p-adic/real transitions over the entire set of material and mental surfaces contained within it; and since p-adic-to-real transitions represent the actualization of intent, then one of two conclusions can be drawn: either our collective intent plays a role in the construction of reality by guiding the evolution of the universe through its available phase space; or, that which we call free will and ability to influence our fate is an illusion, a reflection of random q-jumps in the spin glass landscape of the universe.

It is quite likely that this distinction will prove impossible to make, be it on a physical or philosophical level. However, for the purpose of our discussion what matters is not the primacy of either term in this equation, but the ability to understand how intent allows us to navigate the temporal and causal paradoxes of parapsychology. What does it mean, to remote-view a future event/target? How does the experimenter’s expectation or belief structure affect the outcome of a trial?

The general, grossly simplified answer to this type of questions resides in the ability to view the universe as a massive, pseudo-quantum computer based on TGD topology and operational principles (see Diagram 1). In principle then, the universe performs a new computation over all its qupits (topological condensates) with every new q-jump - and the non-deterministic outcome of this computation determines its new position in the spin glass configuration space. The effect on a particular subsystem is determined by the resultant of the local inputs (p-adic and real operations/transitions). To observe a sub-system is to locally retrieve information about that module: that is done by estimating its computational state at a given time t, which can be done for past, present or future t’s with equal ease. However, since the local state of the module is correlated with the overall computational state of the universe, and we have to deal with the intrinsic indeterminism of either free will or a random universal motion over spin-glass landscape, it is to be expected that the uncertainty in pre-cognitive computations will increase with the temporal separation between RV session and targeted event. On the other hand, spatial separation between viewer and target should make no significant difference (since there is no dissipation along ME bridges); what may be more relevant to the topic of dissipation and partial decoherence is the number of nodes involved in the remote viewing circuit - but we shall deal with this issue in the next section.

V. Remote viewing circuits

If we had to summarize our discussion so far, we would highlight the following points:

1. that remote viewing protocols are consistent with features of quantum computation (although classical information transfer is also involved at some processing levels)

2. that the computational model to be considered has to allow both physical and symbolic representation inputs to interact as interchangeable quantities at the operational gates

3. that the observed dynamic of the local behavior must be accounted for on the basis of global features - that is, one must consider effects like decoherence (bridge decay) on the quality of the RV results.

Can the typical remote viewing scenario be represented as a TGD computational network? On the basis of our previous arguments, we can begin to draw some basic correspondences:

qubits ----------> qupits; superposition of 4-D surface states in spin glass degrees of freedom

entanglement ----------> ME bridges (real and p-adic)

inputs ---------> classical ME pulses corresponding to physical and cognitive (symbolic) features, intents, belief structures, expectations; relative weights modulated by attention

gate operation ----------> attention over averaged inputs; the focus IS the operation (note: this refers mostly to sub-tasks such as viewer's attention to on specific target feature, or change in perspective; information inputs are integrated according to specific focus)

q-computation ----------> ME bridge network activation PLUS integration of specific frequency ME inputs across all association basins ACCORDING TO TASK (see above)

q-circuit defined by material qubits, wires and operational gates -------> RV circuit defined by TGD pseudo-Feynman diagram with vertices as qupits, bosonic ME bridges as wires and attention over averaged inputs as operational gates

information resides in correlations -----------> information resides in alignment of intent (McMoneagle)

error propagation through q-gates --------> bidirectional information flow and "mental contagion"

stabilizer quantum codes ----------> holographic features plus error-correcting protocols (see "orthogonal tasking" below)

fingerprinting ------------> awareness of other viewers at the target; viewer energy signatures

decoherence ---------> natural duration of ME entanglement bridges; time given by p-adic length scale hypothesis; p-adic attention activates bridges

teleportation -----------> dissipation is at the vertices only, not along the ME bridges - hence no effect attenuation with distance; also, XYZ coordinate will not yield information to "mailman" who is unaware that XYZ is part of remote viewing protocol. The shared key is RV protocol plus alignment of intent (tasking)

computational state at future time ---------> precognition is function of probabilistic conclusion based on average over inputs for a given basin of active ME bridges

This scheme suggests that the reliability and accuracy of the computation can be increased through a number of general strategies: for example, by increasing ME connectivity between individual nodes (personal rapport); by extending the area of target activation (i.e. multiple viewer/ multiple tasking); by simultaneous focus of all participants on the RV session (to avoid partial bridge decay); and, of course, by tasking in the near rather than distant future, which would reduce the error associated with estimating the likely evolution of the system across spin glass configuration space (i.e. estimating the geometric correlates of others' intentions and their evolution in time).

We shall look at these aspects in more detail in the following section - but for now let us turn our attention to the concept of massless extremals, which is undoubtedly the key element of our model.

As we saw earlier, MEs come in a variety of solution types (real and p-adic) and pulse forms. Communication via MEs can be seen as a combination of quantum and classical channels:

A/ quantum channel: the formation of low-frequency ME bridges (wavelength in the EEG range and given by c/f_low), which are space-time correlates for quantum entanglement; the general mechanism for this involves the formation of p-adic composite bridges between various associations basins (remote viewer, tasker, target, magnetosphere, etc) which in subsequent q-jumps transform to real, em ME bridges.

B/ classical channel: high frequency (typically microwave range) ME packets which travel along low frequency bridges and correspond to the energy difference between ions at magnetic flux tubes and ions at atomic spacetime sheets.

The general connection with EEG activity can be described as follows: when ions drop from superconducting axonal magnetic flux tubes to atomic spacetime sheets (neuron extra/intracellular matrix), the kinetic energy difference is emitted as high frequency radiation (high frequency MEs). Also, at the magnetic flux tube, the ions are in excited cyclotron states which decay by emitting low cyclotron frequencies in EEG range (low frequency MEs). Ions can also drop from higher to lower (larger) spacetime sheets and back to magnetic flux tubes, absorbing energy and exciting other ions in a process described as a "many-sheeted laser". At the level of the organism, low frequency MEs correspond to sensory representations, while high frequency MEs are most likely involved in full-body dissipative processes like motor action and homeostasis. This full-body em regulatory mechanism most probably involves communication with DNA and other biomolecules known to emit coherent biophotons (see Pitkanen 2003b; Gariaev & al. 2002a,b; Sidorov 2002b). Similar effects can also be induced non-locally (see anomalous cognition/anomalous perturbation) via inter-self entanglement bridges. The energy balance involved in these transactions requires the transfer of ions between atomic surfaces the breaking of the second law of thermodynamics below the p-adic time scale characterizing the system - both of which could provide experimental verification for this model.

For living systems, sensory representations rely on the frequency coding of the object in the perceptive field: MEs with various pulse forms and frequencies act as projectors on the receiver's magnetic sensory canvas (magnetic field body), characterizing the physical features and position/distance of the object in the perceptive field. Object representation at the earth magnetospheric relay station (or higher level stations) involves a similar mechanism, with magnetic flux tubes and MEs radiating from the target and intersecting the magnetospheric flux tubes in such a way that they topographically map the target region like the retinotopic mapping of cortical sensory processing areas.

If this model is generally correct, then how can we interpret the strange format of the typical RV data? What could account for the apparent scrambling of sensory modalities and heavy fragmentation described in section II?

What we know is that, in the brain, sensory information is represented in the brainstem, thalamus and cortical primary sensory areas as neural maps which mirror the functional organization of the receptor surfaces. This topographical organization is hypothesized to act as a basic cognitive representation of the world (distribution of stimulus sources in space), which in turn helps mold learning and behavior patterns. However, the integration of sensory data into an accurate spatial map is a complex process (King; Diamond; Cariani) which involves stimulus-specific ("labeled line") channel-codes, temporal pattern codes and time-of-arrival codes, as well as multi-sensory correlations and integration of data across several levels of the sensory processing pathway. (For example, information may be encoded in the selective recruitment of neurons based on the portion of stimulus range, by amount of polarization, by firing rate, or by the timing of action potentials in relation to APs of other neurons. In man, binaural sound cues work by changing the amplitude of different frequency components according to the direction of incidence; in echo-locating bats, computational maps contain neurons which respond best to pairs of sounds that mimic different components of the animal's biosonar pulse and its returning echo; in rats, neural responses exhibit taste-specific temporal discharge patterns.)

It is also interesting to note that many areas of the brain contain "multisensory neurons" which maximize the brain's ability to identify external stimuli and initiate responses to them; one such area is the superior colliculus in the midbrain, consisting of neurons which are unimodal at birth, but with maturation begin to respond to inputs from a variety of sensory inputs - depending on the appearance of influences from association regions in the neocortex. This interplay between the superior colliculum and the neocortex during the critical early development period determines not only which sensory modalities can be integrated in the SC nucleus, but how these inputs will be integrated and regulated later on (Stein & al.)

Information is pooled at successive levels, and may be replicated in different sets of neurons, for specific kinds of processing (divergence). For example, in the visual system the neurons on one layer map onto the next one in a spatially consistent array: the retinal map is faithfully reflected in the thalamic map, which continues upstream to the cortical visual projection areas V1, then V2, V3, V4, V5 (motion) - until it reaches the anterior pole of the temporal cortex (IT) which puts it all together. Each successive level averages incoming inputs to add more features to the visual scene - lines, color, motion, binocular integration - all the way to pattern recognition and full object representation. (Baars) If damage exists at any level of this visual processing pathway, patients fail to become conscious of that feature: for example, they do not consciously perceive color or motion. Interestingly enough, damage to the V1 area leads to blindsight: while patients refuse to admit that they are perceiving the test object, correct information about its color, texture, motion, etc can be indirectly elicited from them. Another intriguing observation relates to binocular rivalry: it is well known that, when two conflicting images are presented to the two eyes, one becomes conscious and the other is suppressed. Logothetis (see Baars) has shown that, while most of the visual cells fire in equal amount to the two images, in the IT region 90% of the cells fire to the conscious input alone - strongly suggesting that this is indeed where the visual consciousness breaches the level of awareness.

The idea that brain imaging (such as PET scans) could be used to discriminate between true RV signals and imagination is an old and still very attractive one; unfortunately, it is well known that true perception and visualization of the same object tend to stimulate very similar patterns in the cortex - to a degree that subjects can confuse having visualized an object with actually seeing it, even outside of remote viewing scenarios (Kosslyn, LaBerge). However, in light of the arguments described above, we might wonder whether concentrating our imaging focus on deeper structures and intermediate relay stations might help identify genuine psi function. Indeed, the conclusion to be drawn from the previous discussion is that electromagnetic stimulation at any point along such processing pathways could lead to multisensory perceptions and associations showing various degrees of integration. Whereas imagery (AOL) would initiate the same patterns of top-level (IT) activation (note that AOL typically appears as complete, picture-like perceptions), true RV signals might be also detectable below that level - as excitations along the thalamic-V1-V5 axis, or the equivalent for other sensory modalities.

Furthermore, if we realize that the most common way in which the RV data usually presents is as a series of disjointed basic perceptions (shape, color, texture, taste, sound, etc) which only in later stages self-organize into size and dimensional relationships (see CRV manual), we may have reason to wonder whether this peculiar phenomenon might have something to do with a somewhat haphazard stimulation of sensory processing pathways by various electromagnetic stimuli - say, bundles of MEs with different frequencies and pulse forms which travel along the viewer-magnetospheric-target composite bridge, being reflected at the target and probably amplified/modulated by other inputs at the magnetosphere. The almost universal fragmentation of the spatial information about the target suggests that we scan the target not in a continuous topological sweep, and not in a flash-like "aha" perception, but more according to a radar-like mechanism in which specific frequency bursts are emitted, then bounced back by spatially disparate elements at the target which somehow resonate with those frequencies - such that the picture which emerges over the course of the session is not unlike a color-by-numbers image. The ME "echo" of these preliminary sweeps then stimulates the viewer's sensory processing system (see magnetic flux tube "body" and cortical sensory processing/association areas), allowing it to gradually compute their relative source, its position, dimensions, etc - much like the localization of a sound source by multisensory integration. (see Diagram 1 below). Another interesting observation is that, should this mechanism prove to be correct, the ratio between the data integration times of normal and anomalous perception might give us a clue about the rate of information transfer (ME pulse rate) along RV bridges.

The fact that one can, with some experience, successfully begin to direct one's attention to specific aspects of the target ("sub-tasking") suggests that the questions we ask correspond to specific ME codes; however, the initial approach, and the one capable of yielding remarkable detail even to a beginner, is often an unstructured act of attention and mental toying with the target: this suggests to us that this primitive curiosity corresponds itself to a fairly broad spectrum of ME frequencies which are designed as a basic, low-resolution mechanism for sweeping one's environment.

Diagram 1. Remote viewing circuit

Typical RV protocol in which end user (E) requests additional information about target T: tasker (S) is given basic information ijk, and assigns nonsense coordinates xyz to the target. Monitor/courier M is given xyz to transmit to remote viewer V - then may or may not remain present during the RV session. Monitor and viewer are totally blind to the target and there is no direct contact between viewer and tasker or end user. Double ellipses represent "selves" spacetime surfaces containing real (physical plus magnetic field) and p-adic (cognitive) topological condensates; solid lines indicate real massless extremals, while interrupted lines correspond to p-adic MEs; all ME bridges are bi-directional. O: other possible viewers/ other target association basins; R.S.: generic magnetic relay station for flux tubes: earth magnetosphere and higher levels; RVP: cognitive representation of RV protocol involvement; xyz: target coordinate; ijk: target features that end user is aware of (can be physical or cognitive) . Not shown: massive ME connectivity between real and p-adic topological condensates of each self: these p-adic/real ME transitions occur continuously at all organizational levels of the self (i.e transformation of sensory stimulus to conscious perception, intent to action, etc). In a minimal scenario, RV tasking at V generates em ME pulses that travel along various flux tubes/ME bridges and produce both real and p-adic resonance, as well as interference effects, at the nodes shown in the figure.

It is also apparent that the experimenter expectation/belief structure acts as a p-adic input in the overall computation: even when the belief is unstated, it represents a p-adic structure that will be activated by association in the framework of the experiment and thus cannot be separated from the outcome. (The same could be said about the classical quantum measurement problem, in which it appears that the set-up determines the wave or particle manifestation of the test system). Interestingly enough, McMoneagle (who is arguably the top professional remote viewer in the world) has repeatedly stated that the psychological shift from believing to knowing that RV worked was the single most important determinant of success in his work (of course, this does not preclude the need for relentless and rigorous practice). The same idea has been repeated in countless variations by generations of parapsychology researchers. Could such a strong expectation translate into more than a simple cognitive input - perhaps skewing the very probability of the initial p-adic bridge formation (target contact), or strengthening the coherence of p-adic bridges during the RV session? Are p-adic spacetime sheets representing strong expectations/belief structures characterized by an increased topological lability? The question of measurable correlates for p-adic structures is a fascinating one - unfortunately at this time we can only speculate on such matters.

What does it take to be a good remote viewer? From the preceding discussion it becomes apparent that many factors are involved, at both the psychological and physiological level: in addition to the belief structure mentioned above, one must be able to maintain adequate mental focus in order to reduce decoherence from irrelevant sensory and cognitive entanglement; to recognize true RV signal from imaginary integrative brain activity (analytic overlay) on the basis of very subtle differences in the way the data manifests; to correctly estimate what is essentially an indeterministic process (the most likely future history of world q-jumps in configuration space) if the target is pre-cognitive; and to produce the energetic environment conducive to the activation and maintenance of effective ME bridges. We now know that prolonged meditation practice leads to long-term physiological modifications, in particular effects that suggest an increase in the overall coherence domains of the organism, resulting in increased sensitivity and more efficient energy utilization (Sidorov 2002b). Thus one could say that prolonged RV practice leads to a psychophysiological remodelling which results in increased p-adic and real coherence in subself domains - a more robust, less noisy quantum computational network.

What about the design of RV protocols? Can the elements of an RV session be modified to increase accuracy and reliability?

We know that RV cannot by definition be made 100% reliable: this is inherent in the nature of p-adic dynamics, which makes the formation of entanglement bridges non-deterministic. But within such limitations, we believe that certain measures can be taken to improve the quality of the data.

Although the role played by magnetic flux tubes suggests that the earth magnetosphere probably acts as a main port for the integration of most remote interaction inputs (see also possible role of Schumann resonance - Sidorov 2001), it is important to remember that the information is processed as a function of correlations across the entire network, with horizontal channel strengths and durations modulating the final outcome. Thus information flow between participants (i.e. how well the different participants are known to each other, how they think of each other, how focused each one is on the RV task and other competing basins of attraction, how intensely one perceives a bit of data, or how they interpret it) is generally bi-directional, like water in a system of communicating vessels. “To every action there is a reaction” becomes, in this context, “one cannot view a target without leaving an imprint, or being viewed himself”.

One characteristic of quantum computation is that errors tend to propagate from one qubit to another when the qubits interact through one quantum gate (1). In quantum information theory, this problem is usually approached through protocols called error-correcting codes - ways of encoding the data which stabilize the system against random noise.

In the past, redundancy has been built into various RV collection methods by increasing the number of viewers tasked with the same target. However, this is based on a model of classical information encoding, in which the noise in the channel affects different bits independently (Steane, Alber). But we have seen that errors, be they of sensory reception or analytical interpretation, can often propagate from one viewer to another - suggesting that we need to find error-correcting methods that follow the quantum, rather than the classical circuit model.

One way in which quantum error stabilization is approached is through the use of active feedback control: if the same information is encoded by three (spin) qubits which are allowed to evolve over a given time x, then two of the qubits are measured, a majority decision can be made as to whether the observed spin flips are a result of intrinsic system evolution or random noise - and this majority operation then either returns the system to its initial value, or assumes the new value as dictated by the majority observation - followed a new time window x’, and so on until the end of the computation. This can be done, remarkably, without disturbing the stored quantum information. (Steane; Alber).

Could we try the same approach when tasking an unknown target? In principle, if a certain approach to the target (i.e. ideogram > consistency > shape > color > texture > etc) is agreed upon, and every viewer is supplied with a computer which performs regular comparisons and strengthens matching data (like a non-blind monitor), it might be possible to theorize that the true signal line would be enhanced. In practice, however, we know that the data arrives in different “quanta” for each viewer, so that a lot of potentially useful information could be thrown out simply because it does not appear across the field at the same time; also, this does not seem to offer protection against AOL propagation between viewers - which may happen simultaneously across the board and would get automatically reinforced, possibly compromising the entire session.

So how can we address the contagion problem?

One intuitive approach (hopefully to be formalized at a future time) is based on the notion that information sharing in the TGD universe has holographic features based on the presence of electromagnetic massless extremals as correlates of entanglement. In electromagnetic terms, each thought/emotion/belief structure=mental image corresponds to specific ME pulses and activation patterns at the level of one's brain and magnetic body. Thus what we end up with in the RV session is a massive interference pattern of various em pulses, across various activation basins/nodes/Feyman vertices. These nodes correspond to the real spacetime surfaces of the viewers, tasker, end-users, target, magnetosphere, as well as secondary activation basins that may be stimulated where residual/simultaneous entanglement bridges remain.

How does this picture translate in practical terms? On one hand, it becomes clear that, to minimize noise in the system, it would be beneficial for all possible nodes (i.e. end user, tasker, viewers) to remain focused on the RV task over the duration of the RV session. This would strengthen or re-establish relevant entanglement bridges (since we do not yet have a clear quantitative view of their decay time), and minimize any extraneous noise contributed by other activities.

At the same time, we hypothesize that the denser and more complex the interference pattern, the better the resolution and error-correcting properties of the circuit. In other words, using a number of viewers AND separate sources of information AND variations on the main tasking question would result in a pattern of constructive/destructive interference (let's call it "orthogonal tasking") that would reduce the likelihood of error propagation. Having the viewers focus on different functional/ sensory modalities that do not allow other viewers' data as reasonable solutions might also reduce the risk of contamination. (For example, arriving at the same piece of information by asking for the target's surroundings, what he/she is wearing at the moment, and the reading on his/her hand watch - to find out that the subject is scuba diving in tropical waters at a depth of 50 feet). Of course, in such a set-up it becomes even more critical that local decoherence effects are minimized by a close alignment of everyone's mental focus during the session.

A few more interesting questions remain to be asked: for example, it has been shown that forced-choice ESP data demonstrates the presence of periodic maxima with a significant harmonic pattern - suggesting, in the opinion of the authors, that psi may be an oscillatory correlational field (Don & al.) Chinese studies of bioenergy emissions from the hands of Qigong masters have identified "a very low frequency fluctuating carrier wave" [Alvino], and gifted psi subjects have been reported to emit a measurable "pulsating magnetic field whose magnitude is not much weaker than the magnetic field of the earth" (IEEE Symposia p. 220). Finally Oschman, who reviewed a vast amount of healing literature spanning many traditions and many different investigators, concluded that oscillating magnetic fields emitted from the hands of energy therapists "appear to 'scan' or 'sweep' through a range of frequencies" (0.3-30Hz) with most of the activity in the 7-8 Hz range (Sidorov 2001).

In light of these observations, we have reason to wonder about the possibility of physiological cycles in the generation of resonant frequencies that might favor the activation of ME bridges, or the p-adic-to-real conversion of task-specific ME pulses. Is there any observable periodicity to the arrival of RV data clusters? Does the 10-17 second latency observed in the Yamamoto experiments correlate with some quantized measure of circuit computation or composite ME bridge formation? Could it represent a measure of high frequency, "probing ME" pulse generation? The question of psi channel bit capacity has been investigated previously - for example by I.M. Kogan, who found that the bit rate decreasead from 0.1 bit/sec for laboratory experiments to 0.005 bit/sec for his 1.000km intercity experiments (IEEE Symposia p22). We can only recommend that similar studies are replicated and their results correlated with modern psychophysiological data.

And what about the effect of geomagnetic fluctuations and local sidereal time on psi function? As Spottiswoode points out, these fluctuations average a mere 50-200 nT in a total field strength of approximately 50,000 nT. (Spottiswoode). At what level could such fluctuations become significant? Does this type of noise interfere with our brain's ability to process psi inputs, does it reflect noise levels along the ME bridge and/or at the level of the magnetospheric relay station - or, as Pitkanen suggests, is the LST window coincident with structural strains in the geomagnetic flux tubes?

VI. Further testing and applications

Up to this point, our discussion would have little value beyond that of a debatable intellectual exercise. How we model remote viewing (or the universe, for that matter) only becomes significant if we can make testable and practical predictions based on our theory - and that is precisely what we intend to do in this section.

Evidence for psychophysiological entanglement

1a. Based on previous studies in DMILS (Braud & Schlitz; Yamamoto & al. 1996-b,c; Yamamoto & al 1997,1998, 1999, 2001; Hirasawa & al, 1996-1,2; Kawano 1998) one is justified to predict that active entanglement bridges will result in detectable physiological responses at all or most of the "synaptic points" involved in the activated region of the network: that is, if E, S and M (see Diagram 1) are physiologically monitored during the RV session (based on a blind trial series protocol where they do not know when V is engaged in viewing the target and when V is resting) - then we expect that a statistically significant difference will be found between their various physiological parameters during active versus sham sessions. Since past studies of tohate/DMILS have focused on EEG alpha waves, galvanic skin response and heart rate, we suggest using the same parameters for now.

If significant physiological changes are noted correlating with the RV windows, this may be seen as supporting evidence for the bridge network theory.

1b. A variation on this test could have E, S and M do a running narrative of their mental imagery simultaneously with V's RV session, then comparing the time oriented imagery and looking for correlations.

Interference effects

A series of blind trials could be designed in which E, S and M all concentrate on their participation in the RV session OR on other unrelated tasks - while V attempts to make contact with the target not knowing which of the two protocols is followed, to avoid expectation bias. The targets should be of comparable difficulty (say all static and with comparable Shannon entropy).

2a. Does the average effect size (accuracy and reliability combined) increase for scenarios where all intents are aligned?

2b. Is there bleed-through of mental images from unrelated activities of E, S and M into V's RV session narrative when M, E, S are engaged in different activities?

Note: for all tests listed so far the correlation between E (end user) and V (viewer) is particularly significant, since at no time is there direct contact between them (they do not know each other).

3a. What happens when the same coordinate is used to designate not one but two different targets? Does the signal line contain equal amounts of information about both? If the targets are chosen to be equivalent in all other respects, is there a correlation between the amount of data pertinent to one target and the distance from the viewer (e.g. does the closer target yield more abundant or more accurate information? Does the data arrive any faster?)

3b. Increasing connectivity: a variation on this experimental series could have E (end user) spend 5 minutes three times a day focusing on object P and 1 minute three times a day focusing on object Q; if the same coordinate XYZ is assigned to both P and Q by tasker S, will there be more data retrieved about target P?

Energy signatures and transaction times

4. It is also interesting to mention, at this point, a very rare but dramatic phenomenon that has been described by a number of professional remote viewers (and, even more rarely, by some beginners): that is the so-called bilocation - a situation in which the viewer, instead of acquiring his data piecemeal, seems to suddenly "find himeself at the target" - perceiving everything very distinctly and intensely, as if he were inside the target and almost unable to re-connect with his real environment or protocol procedure (CRV manual; Mars p 76, 136 Morehouse p 136, 146, 153; McMoneagle 2002 p 121)

We know that in TGD the generation of quantum bound states involves the liberation of the binding energy as usable energy (see Pitkanen 2003a, section 4.2). Given the fact that oxidative metabolism is abnormally low during synchrony, Pitkanen has argued that entanglement (both between neuron groups of the same brain, and between viewer/target) provides a new kind of metabolic mechanism. This seems to be supported by another interesting hypothesis put forth by Peter Fox (Hameroff), regarding the oxygen requirements of consciousness itself: based on evidence from brain-imaging techniques which show large increases in blood flow accompanied by little or no increase in oxygen uptake in areas of high cognitive activity, the theory suggests that the normal stream of consciousness is in fact phasic, consisting of rapidly alternating aerobic and anaerobic processes; the aerobic, dissipative phase involves extero-/proprioceptive/output interactions, while the act of consciousness itself represents the anaerobic, non-dissipative phase.

In light of these observations, we would like to suggest that the RV process consists of a very rapid cycling between entanglement (anaerobic consciousness/ shared mental images/ identification with the target) and the state preparation process (aerobic /analytical interpretation of the signal perception). What may happen then in bilocation is that for some reason one experiences an unusually massive qcoherence (timescale is massive compared to the norm) so that it takes much longer for the viewer to naturally disentangle from the signal and return to an analytical mode where he can record impressions. Possibly the same is true for out-of-body experiences and for the Bigu phenomenon in Qigong (2). A very interesting test would be to use functional magnetic resonance (fMR) imaging to compare the brain oxygen uptake during bi-location to that in normal RV function and to that of control, non-RV states.

It is also worth asking whether the meditative emphasis on reducing the breathing rate and prolonging the relative duration of expiration not only quiets the firing activity of the brain (as Austin shows in "Zen and the brain"), but actually produces a shift in the balance of aerobic/anaerobic processes. Could it be that the act of pure consciousness (entanglement with the meditation object or with a higher level spacetime surface) is, under normal circumstances, infinitesimally short-lasting, acting more like a ligand between the moments of stimulus processing? And in that case, could meditation be the process by which one learns to increase the macrotemporal coherence of entanglement, allowing these split-second, undetectable moments of pure consciousness to coalesce into an experience that is now perceivable? In this context, it is interesting to recall those rare but persistent accounts (see Varela; Murphy and Donovan) of yogis being able to suspend their breath for 8-9 minutes or even more at a time - presumably to enhance the depth of absorption. There is also a meditative practice parallel to the notion of energy pumping/"many-sheeted laser" discussed by Pitkanen - and that is the process of going from constantly reinforcing attention to sudden, effortless absorption into a state of stable, high energy, very low breathing rate and non-discoursive, non-imagistic mentation (samadhi). Although this could be simply a matter of chaotic behavior and shifting into a new neural configuration equilibrium, the possibility that perhaps we are witnessing some sort of quantum tunneling into a large scale, coherent entanglement state is certainly intriguing and warrants further study of the metabolic picture involved in such states of consciousness.

5. Could we measure electromagnetic ME signatures associated with entanglement bridges?

We know that both local and distant mental focus have in the past been shown to produce unusual biophoton and magnetic signals. For example, unusually high static charges (up to 221 volts) from the bodies of healers and psi-gifted people have been reported by Watkins, Hochenegg, Shallis and Green (Benor p157-8). Nakamura measured a drop in surface temperature and an increase in biophoton emission intensity from the hands of practitioners in the qigong state, and Wallace found that human biophoton emissions could be increased by subjects at will (Sidorov 2002a). Chen & al. found that the Laogong point temperature of distant Qi receivers increased during transmission (Chen & al). Adamenko reported that one of his PK subjects (Vinogradova) was able to distantly induce an electric charge on objects, prior to moving them (IEEE Symposia p 218) Reports of high surges in the magnetic field surrounding healers, or significant effects on distant magnetic sensors, have been published by Ullman, Watkins, Puthoff and Targ, Zimmerman and Ostrander and Schroeder, and Sergeyev (IEEE Symposia p 220, Benor p 168-9, Sidorov 2001). Photographic film exposure in association with healing or clairvoyance experiments has been demonstrated in independent studies by Watkins, Turner and Zhao Yong-Jie (Benor p 157, 169). Water previously held by healers has been shown to expose photographic film sensitive only to the high ultraviolet range (Benor p 78). Finally, the intentional production of images on photographic film by mental projection has been documented by Eisenbud (Benor p 171)

The problem of course is that the interpretation of any energy measurements involving a human target would be complicated by their own neurophysiological processes: while the distant effects on receiver's EEG and GRS are clear indications of a subconscious information transfer, it is still difficult to say whether this involves em MEs. For example, Qigong posits the existence of two types of communication channels: qi, which consists of energy, and yi, which represents pure information with no energetic content. Could these be correlates for real and , respectively, p-adic MEs?) In other words - could we show evidence of energy transfer at the target?

5a. One possibility would be to choose a non-living target in a steel dark chamber where the sample can be maintained at a constant temperature. A low noise photomultiplier in single photon counting mode can then be used to compare target photon emissions at baseline with those during and after (successful) RV sessions. Such set-ups have been used before to detect ultraweak biophoton emissions from living samples (see Musumeci) and have a spectral sensitivity from 200 to 800 nm.

Of course, viewer Laogong-point biophoton emissions could also be recorded and compared to energy signatures at the target: is the spectrum the same? Is there a reproducible frequency shift, or time delay between viewer and target photon emission peaks?

5b. Additional information could be gained by using a red/green button set-up in which the viewer would depress one button while engaged in what he feels is RV signal perception and the other button while he is actively "seeking out" the target (with no buttons depressed while he is describing the data). Such a time-oriented record could be used to identify the periods of most likely target contact (data clearly corresponding to target descriptives) then superimposed on the photon emission record to see if unusual energy signatures can be identified. The time lag between "button depressed" and any hypothesized photon emission spike could yield important clues about the pulse form/ temporal spacing of em MEs and/or duration of ME bridges. Does the time vary at all with the distance between viewer and target? What if the target is outside the earth's magnetosphere? Is the energy signature produced in zero-time, or does it take the 13 - 17 sec observed with EEG alpha entrainment? And what, if any, is the effect of geomagnetic fluctuations/LST on the "computation time"?

6a. Do different tasks/intents produce different energy signatures (ME pulse frequencies)? This question might be answered by using very sensitive measurement devices (i.e. photomultiplier, bubble chamber) and comparing the effects obtained by having the viewer probe the target in different ways.

6b. Are the ME effects additive? Does the hypothesized photon burst show greater intensity when several viewers focus on the target at the same time?

7a. As we discussed above, the conversion between ME pulses and noticeable EEG/physiological effects at the target is probably a non-instantaneous process, which makes it difficult to assess the time characteristics of pure ME transactions or the duration of entanglement bridges.

However, it may be possible to link two inert targets as part of an RV protocol, then observe for how long the "activation" of target 1 continues to produce an effect at target 2. For example, we could use two metal samples/photomultiplier set-ups as described above and designate both with the same XYZ target until it is established that the viewer has made contact with both (analogous to creating an entagled photon pair). The target A could be separated from target B and a new X'Y'Z' coordinate could be assigned to A. Does the viewer continue to report information about both A and B? Are there any abnormal photon emissions at B during this second session? And for how long can such an effect be observed?

7b. How long does it take for the photon spike in 6. to return to base levels after the viewer re-directs his focus/ends the session? Is there a "phantom" effect noticeable? Is there a persistent change in the spectrum of photons emitted by the target even if photon emission intensity returns to base levels - and if so, is this the basis for the "imprinting" by other viewers?

Ion signatures

8. Pitkanen has proposed that another possible test for TGD would be the detection of unusual ions at the target, as a signature of ion leakage from magnetic flux tubes to atomic spacetime sheets. For example, photographic emulsions could be used under, near, or as remote viewing targets and compared to control films under similar maintenance and development conditions. Are there unusual ions detected in the target emulsion after development?

This set-up could also act as a detector of unexpected energy signatures if the target film shows exposure tracks that do not appear on the control films.

Finally, a bubble chamber could be used to detect signatures of subatomic particles. It is interesting to note here that such effects have been documented before: Olga Worrall, a well-known healer, could produce similar patterns in a bubble chamber by holding her hands over it and also by focusing her attention on it from a distance of many miles [Benor p 152]

Brain imaging studies

9. As we suggested in section V, it may be possible to differentiate between imagination and true RV signal on the basis of neural activity at intermediate levels (say V1-V5) of sensory processing pathways. Time oriented records of verified RV signal perception (as described above in 5b) could be used in combination with PET/ fMRI/ MEG studies to create maps of brain activation involved in typical RV processing and compare them to brain areas involved in sensory perception and imagination. Such averaged maps could then be used in application settings to help differentiate between true signal and analytic overlay.

Can information be masked?

10. Mark Germine's series of experiments with event-related potentials under random pre-observed conditions (Germine 1998, 2002) suggest one other interesting possibility. In principle, if both participants are entangled by a common focus on the experimental protocol, then "A observing oddball" at time (t) can be seen as a mental image shared between A and B via entanglement bridges in the time interval between t and (t + x) when B is physically stimulated by the oddball signal. This would lead to the same data that Germine obtained, since the "result of the measurement has already been communicated to B at time t + x" - but what if one tries to deliberately contaminate this information? We could, in principle, add several more participants P, Q, R who are told, at time (t), that the signal is normal (that is, non-oddball). If information is computed across all network bridges as we believe, then the false inputs from several participants could outweigh the correct input from A, and the ERP reading at B should correspond to a non-preobserved trial (or at least something in between these two values, if we allow for the possibility of doubt / information superposition).

What this test amounts to, ultimately, is a very important question: is the information we get in anomalous cognition the objective truth of a "higher mind", or propaganda generated by our collective and possibly misinformed, misconceiving minds? Unfortunately the evidence reviewed so far in this paper suggests that the latter is far more likely.

However, this also opens the possibility that sensitive targets can be protected from unwanted RV by creating a "shield" of misinformation around them: thus once again the technology may change, but history repeats itself!

VII. Conclusion

When does a prevalent scientific paradigm officially change? One could naively assume that, confronted by a serious challenge, the scientific community will at least reconsider its allegiance and open the door to new possibilities. Unfortunately, history teaches us otherwise: the paradigms we choose to adopt are the new myths of our collective subconscious - and, as we have seen, scientific objectivity is the first victim of such adaptive pressures.

Are we ready to accept the implications of quantum mechanics at the macroscopic level? After nearly a century of frustrating stagnation before the formalism of QM, the time seems ripe for an overhaul in fundamental physics. The building blocks of a new model have been painstakingly accumulated over the past eight decades, and the new surge of popular interest in phenomena like nonlocal healing and remote viewing is increasingly shining a spotlight on these problematic "leftover pieces" of the standard model.

The problem seems to be, however, that we are lacking a basic understanding of how these pieces can logically and consistently fit together: the blueprint of a new edifice is still missing, and our current way of thinking appears incapable of producing one in the near future.

TGD is not the only theory that has attempted to provide us with a working draft for such a blueprint. It is even conceivable that other theories (such a Kaivarainen's Unified Model) may ultimately prove to be mathematically equivalent to certain aspects of TGD. But the unique advantage of Pitkanen's approach, in our opinion, is that it offers what other current models cannot: a way to visualize both physical and conscious processes, to see the emerging architecture of this universe we know to be both material and informational in nature as a dynamic geometrical structure whose topology we can learn to navigate.

The challenge of unifying quantum mechanics and relativity is likely to be surpassed, in the years ahead, by that of unifying our fundamental physical model with the insidious presence of consciousness effects on macroscopic physico-biological systems. Being able to use fundamental parallels between number theory, quantum physics and information theory, together with the wealth of empirical data provided by decades of AC/PK studies, may turn out to be the launching point in our great leap over the conceptual abyss opened by quantum theory. The symmetries and fractality contained in TGD offer us a way to freely move between several levels of intuition - not to mention a rich spectrum of definite predictions and applications. The obvious task ahead is to use our experimental capabilities to test the validity of TGD and, should it prove fundamentally correct - help steer it toward a more concrete, detailed formulation.


Acknowledgement: a special thanks to Joe McMoneagle and Matti Pitkanen, for

their vision, determination and extraordinary intellectual courage in pushing

the boundaries of human exploration.



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Objections against the identification of quantum brain as standard quantum computer

by Matti Pitkanen

Quantum jump consists of three parts: unitary process U, state function reduction inducing localization in zero modes, and state preparation consisting of a sequence of self measurements governed by NMP and minimizing entanglement: only bound states and states with algebraic entanglement coefficients are stable against state preparation. These states correspond to the periods of macrotemporal quantum coherence. Spin glass degeneracy associated with the join along boundaries bonds implies the degeneracy of bound states invisible from the point of view of standard physics so that the time spent in degenerate bound states (identified as one and the same state in standard physics view) defining the decoherence time is much longer than expected. For states with algebraic entanglement coefficients NMP guarantees the stability if entanglement negentropy is positive. It is not yet clear whether algebraic entanglement is possible only between different number fields, or is it also possible between real systems forming a bound state.

1. Subjecto-temporal and spatial architecture as common aspects

Quantum jump has the same general temporal architecture as quantum computation (one might ask whether one should define quantum jump as state preparation-unitary process-state function reduction) with state function reduction corresponding to the halting of quantum computation in standard paradigm. Thus one might tend to say that universe is performing quantum computations with rate of 10^{39} computations per second. Macrotemporal quantum coherence however effectively glues sequences of quantum jumps to single quantum jump so that the computation like process can have macrotemporal duration. State function reduction and self measurements represent a process analogous to a conscious analysis.

Quantum computer like architecture is present in spatial sense and corresponds to the self hierarchy. Topological quantization implies that spacetime surface has structure of a generalized Feynman diagram with lines thickened to 4-surfaces. There are matter lines, space-time sheets representing material systems of all possible sizes: these are analogous to the gates of the quantum computer. There are also topological light rays representing ideal communication lines, much like wave guides. The fields propagating along these quantum communication lines interfere at the vertices acting as input gates. One should however be cautious of not taking the analogy with the quantum computation too far. There are indeed many important differences.

2. Standard quantum computation paradigm lacks the notion of self

Standard quantum computation paradigms does not have the notion of self and one can say that standard quantum computation is unconscious.

a) The input and result of the ordinary quantum computation are controlled and read by an external observer, who is an outsider with respect to the quantum computer and does not share the conscious experience associated with the quantum computation. Quantum computer in standard sense can be regarded as non-living matter. From the point of view of conscious experience quantum jump (or a sequence of them effectively fusing to single quantum jump) represents conscious quantum information processing. Both sensory and Boolean qualia, emotions, and cognition are involved with conscious information processing so that modeling it as quantum computation is clearly too strong an idealization.

b) The multiverse character of the period of macrotemporal coherence might be much more decisive to the conscious information processing than the formal input-output relation. This is clear from the fact that the genuine macroscopic quantum states in the world of worlds represent abstraction level higher than quantum states in the world. The algebraic entanglement between real and p-adic space-time sheets is natural candidate for representing cognition as quantum computation type processing. This might give rise to a generation of concepts identifiable as quantum parallel superposition of the instances of the concept.

The bound state entanglement between real spacetime sheets could give rise to non-geometric qualia like colors. Rates of changes of entropies associated with various qualia define emotions which are in crucial role in conscious information processing and involved with meaning not present in ordinary conscious information processing. Meaning might make possible to understand how brain is able to achieve its sensitivity to context. Note that meaning requires several quantum jumps and the notion of self.

c) Sharing of mental images involving entanglement of subselves of un-entangled selves represents conscious quantum communication as opposed to standard quantum communication. Sharing of mental images is possible only if one accepts the length scale dependent subsystem concept forced by many-sheeted spacetime topology and by made quantitative by length length scale hypothesis. Stereo consciousness is one implication of macrotemporal quantum coherence.

3. Number theoretic information concept

Number theoretic information measures apply at least to the real-padic entanglement, possibly also to the states with real-algebraic entanglement coefficients, and imply deep departures from standard quantum computation paradigm applying to dead matter.

a) Cognitive quantum computation like processes with algebraic entanglement between real and p-adic states, and perhaps even between p-adic states with different primes, is something completely new. Here qupit and its powers having p^n states are natural computational units since information content is positive if the entanglement probabilities are inversely proportional to a power of p. One can characterize the information content of cognitive entanglement, and it can be both negative and positive so that also the notion of dis-information makes sense. For two entangled qupits the maximal information content is log(p).

b) Quantum computation paradigm in the standard form is extremely restrictive. Basic states are qubits. In TGD framework qubits correspond to 2-adic quantum computation representing the lowest level of the p-adic hierarchy. Spin glass degeneracy of the bound states provides immense resources for information storage. Qubit must me replaced with qupit having p states. Since the primes involve are large (p about 2 to power 167 for the size scale of a small bacterium and corresponding to 167 bits), immense computational resources are possible and could help to understand the context sensitivity of conscious information processing. Of course, fermionic spin gives qubit a preferred role and fermionic spin relates to Boolean qualia which are naturally valued basically and give rise to direct sensory experience of two-valued Boolean qualia (beautiful/ugly, right/wrong, true/false corresponding to aesthetics-ethics-logics trinity).

4. New view about time and space-time

New view about the relationship implies the paradigm of 4-dimensional brain and notion of geometric memory which means that information need not to be stored again and again on every moment of geometric time. The mirror mechanism of long term memory realized in terms of MEs provides concrete realization of conscious memory.

The active role of topological field quanta of classical fields (field body/magnetic body) of even astrophysical size is an important departure from the standard essentially local quantum computation.

The possibility to assign p-adic prime or several of them also to the real spacetime sheets and reflecting their fractal structure above p-adic resolution scale, together with quantum-classical correspondence, suggests that processes like factorization of large integers to prime factors are realized at the level of spacetime topology and that factoring of integer to primes could basically reduce to classical measurements and even to sensory perception.

5. Conscious information processing is more flexible than quantum computation

For several reasons the conscious information processing is much more flexible than standard quantum computation.

a) Conscious holography, not present in ordinary quantum computer, makes information storage robust and flexible.

b) Self-organization and dissipation leading to the Darwinian selection of mental images and weak dependence on initial conditions, is essential aspect of conscious information processing and absent in the standard quantum computer paradigm.

c) Second law of thermodynamics states that entropy increases with respect to subjective time. p-Adic length scale hypothesis suggests that the arrow of geometric time can change below the p-adic time scale characterizing the system so that with respect to the geometric time entropy decreases. Time reversal is expected to be an important error correction process, more powerful than ordinary quantum computational error correction since can occur spontaneously and is based on time reversed Darwinian selection induced by time reversed dissipation identifiable as a healing. This kind of process could be a basic process of healing in living matter and typically involves the emission of negative energy photons and MEs (phase conjugate laser beams). Dissipation-healing cycles (Yin-Yang) would define a fractal hierarchy of bio-rhythms forming a kind of a fractal Karma's cycle containing Karma's cycles containing... Time reversal makes also possible buy now-pay later (or let others pay) type remote metabolism making possible extreme flexibility at molecular and higher levels since the sub-system can gain energy it needs just by emitting negative energy received by the remote energy source for which the process means healing. Quantum credit card is a good metaphor here. Sensory-motor dichotomy could correspond to dissipation-healing dichotomy. Motor actions would not be preceded by enormous computational and planning activities but would be 4-D statues carved from a rough sketch using time reversed processes to polish the details. Also excitation-inhibition dichotomy could correspond dissipation-healing dichotomy with synaptic contacts acting correspondingly in ordinar resp. time reversed mode. The increase of inhibition during evolution means also that organisms become more and more active performer of motor actions rather than providing energy and serving as instruments of say magnetospheric selves.

d) The role of intention at all levels of the self hierarchy brings in additional flexibility but can have undesirable effects from the point of view of computation. In ordinary quantum computation this kind of flexibility is not possible since the control occurs in top-down manner. A possible realization of intentionality is in terms of p-adic MEs whereas cognition would be realized in terms of p-adic fermions, in particular p-adic cognitive neutrino pairs.