Journal of Nonlocality and Remote Mental Interactions, Vol. I Nr. 2, May 2002
HIERARCHIC MODEL OF CONSCIOUSNESS:
FROM MOLECULAR BOSE CONDENSATION
TO SYNAPTIC REORGANIZATION
University of Turku, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland
Hierarchic Model of Consciousness (HMC) presented here, is based on new Hierarchic
Theory of Condensed Matter, general for liquids and solids (Kaivarainen, 1995; 2000a). In
accordance to HMC, each specific kind of neuron ensembles excitation - corresponds to complex
system of three-dimensional (3D) standing waves of different nature: thermal de Broglie waves
(waves B), produced by anharmonic vibrations of molecules; electromagnetic (IR) waves;
acoustic waves and vibro-gravitational waves (Kaivarainen, 2000b). Corresponding dynamic
hologram may be responsible for large-scale quantum neurodynamics and for morphogenetic
In our model we consider the role of quantum collective excitations, produced by coherent
translational and librational oscillations of water in the hollow core of the microtubules (MT). It
is shown, that water fraction, related to librations, represent mesoscopic molecular Bose
condensate (MBC) in form of coherent clusters. The dimensions of water clusters (nanometers)
and frequency of their IR radiation may be enhanced by influence of rigid walls of MT. The
MBC is most ordered fraction of matter in biological cells. The increased frequency of coherent
IR photons, radiated by MBC in MT, make possible the distant exchange interaction between
MT of different neuron ensembles without absorption of photons by cytoplasmic water.
The Brownian effects, which influence reorientation of "tuned" MTs and increasing of
probability of cavitational fluctuations in cytoplasmic water, stimulating [gel - sol] transition -
may be responsible for non-computational element of consciousness. Other models (Wigner,
1955 and Penrose, 1994) relate this element to wave function collapse.
The full version of these paper is located at: http://arXiv.org/pdf/physics/0003044
A basically new hierarchic quantitative theory, general for solids and liquids (Kaivarainen,
2000a), has been used as a background of quantum features of our Hierarchic model of
consciousness. It is assumed in theory, that anharmonic oscillations of particles of condensed
matter lead to emergence of three-dimensional (3D) superposition of standing de Broglie waves
of molecules, electromagnetic and acoustic waves. Consequently, any condensed matter could
be considered as a gas of 3D standing waves of corresponding nature. Our approach unifies and
develops the Einstein’s and Debye’s models.
Collective excitations in form of coherent clusters, representing at certain conditions the
mesoscopic molecular Bose condensate, were analyzed. It was shown, that most probable de
Broglie wave (wave B) length can exceed the classical thermal wave B length and the distance
between centers of molecules many times. This makes possible the atomic and molecular partial
Bose condensation in solids and liquids at temperatures in form of 3D standing waves B:
so-called primary translational and librational effectons (Kaivarainen, 2000a). It is one of the
most important result of new theory, which was confirmed by computer simulations on examples
of water and ice.
Four strongly interrelated new types of quasiparticles (excitations) were introduced in our
hierarchic theory: 1. Effectons (tr and lb), existing in "acoustic" (a) and "optic" (b) states
represent the coherent clusters in general case; 2. Convertons, corresponding to interconversions
between tr and lb types of the effectons (flickering clusters); 3. Transitons are the intermediate
[a<--> b] transition states of the tr and lb effectons; 4. Deformons are the 3D superposition of IR
electromagnetic or acoustic waves, activated by transitons and [lb<--> tr] convertons.
Hierarchical combination of the above quasiparticles leads to origination of 24 (4!= 24)
In the general case the effectons can be approximated by parallelepiped with edges
corresponding to de Broglie waves length in three selected directions (1, 2, 3), related to the
symmetry of the molecular dynamics. In the case of isotropic molecular motion the effectons’
shape may be approximated by cube.
The dynamic equilibrium between all of collective quantum excitations of water inside
microtubules (MT), affecting their coherent IR radiation and neurons interaction is very sensitive
to conformational properties of MT.
The electrical recording of human brain activity demonstrate a coherent (40 to 70 Hz) firing
among widely distributed and distant brain neurons (Singer, 1993). Such synchronization in a big
population of groups of cells points to possibility of not only regular axon-mediated, but also of
physical fields-mediated distant or even quantum nonlocal interaction between them.
The idea of Karl Pribram (Languages of the Brain, 1977) of holographic principles of
memory and braining is very popular in quantum models of consciousness. We also support this
general idea and try to transform it in concrete shape in our model. In contrast to usual
holograms, reflecting the three-dimensional geometric properties of objects in photo materials,
the information in the membranes and cytoskeleton of nerve cells is encoded in the form of our
effectons and deformons, introduced in our Hierarchic theory of condensed matter (Kaivarainen
The code way of keeping the information in the form of the effectons and deformons as 3D
standing waves (de Broglie waves, electromagnetic, acoustic and vibro-gravitational), generated
by microtubules, containing internal water, much more organized than water of cytoplasm - looks
very effective and may be used at quantum computer technology (Kaivarainen, 2000b).
Hameroff and Penrose (1996; 1998) proposed the "orchestrated objective reduction (Orch
OR)" model of quantum computation in microtubules (MT) of brain. They suppose, that quantum
nonlocal interaction between huge number of MT may provide coherency of their thermal
dynamics. Based on principle of uncertainty in coherent form it was calculated, that if the
difference in volume of alternative states of very big dynamically coherent number (10^9 of
tubulin dimers (alpha, beta) is about 10% during 0.5 s (arbitrary assumption), the quantum gravity
induced self-collapse to one of such state may occur. However, even accepting these calculations
as valid, their model do not explain the following crucial moments:
a) physical mechanism of nonlocality, providing distant thermal and quantum coherency in
MTs and switching of this mechanism on and off;
b) selectivity of mechanism of nonlocality, working just for tubulins and not for other
proteins of cell;
c) biophysical "links" between nerve excitation and self-collapsing of MTs system to one
state, inducing synaptic reorganization.
The only way to ’save’ the idea of Penrose and Hameroff about quantum gravity induced
self-collapse of MT system is to suppose that collapse is resulted from change of mass of fraction
of mesoscopic Bose condensation of water molecules in hollow core of microtubules, triggered
by membranes depolarization, as it leads from our model.
It follows from Hierarchic theory based computer simulations, that mesoscopic Bose
condensate of water may exist even at physiological temperature in form of coherent molecular
clusters (primary librational effectons). The size of such clusters (1-2 nm), determined by
3-dimensional (3D) standing de Broglie waves of molecules, related with their librations is
dependent on temperature (Kaivarainen, 2000a).
The evidence of Mesoscopic molecular Bose condensation at physiological temperature,
based on Virial theorem, valid for classical and quantum systems is presented also at full paper
2. Properties of Actin Filaments, Microtubules and Internal Water
There are six main forms of actin existing. Most general F-actin is a polymer, constructed
from globular protein G-actin with molecular mass 41.800. Each G-actin subunit is stabilized by
one ion Ca2+ and is in noncovalent complex with one ATP molecule. Polymerization of G-actin
is accompanied by splitting of phosphate group. The velocity of F-actin polymerization is
enhanced strongly by hydrolysis of ATP. However, polymerization itself do not needs energy.
Simple increasing of salt concentration (decreasing of water activity), approximately till to
physiological one - induce polymerization and strong increasing of viscosity.
The actin filaments are composed from two chains of G-actin with diameter of 40 Å and
forming double helix. The actin filaments are the polar structure with different properties of two
ends. Disassembly of actin and (gel<-->sol) transition is dependent strongly on water activity and
energy of thermal fluctuation.
Let us consider the properties of microtubules (MT) as one of the most important
component of cytoskeleton, responsible for spatial organization and dynamic behavior of
the cells. The stability and dynamics of microtubules composed of alpha and beta tubulins is also
dependent on water activity aH2O see Section 13.7 of book: Kaivarainen 1995 and Kaivarainen,
2000c), concentration of Ca2+ and on the electric field gradient change due to MTs piezoelectric
properties. The alpha and beta tubulins are globular proteins with equal molecular mass
MM 55. 000 , usually forming alpha-beta dimers with linear dimension 8nm. Polymerization of
microtubules can be stimulated by NaCl, Mg2+ and GTP (1:1 tubulin monomer) (Alberts et al.,
1983). The presence of heavy water (deuterium oxide) also stimulates polymerization of MT. In
contrast to that the presence of ions of Ca2+ even in micromolar concentrations, action of
colhicine and lowering the temperature till 4°C induce disassembly of MT.
Microtubules are hollow cylinders, filled with water. Their internal diameter about
din 140Å and external diameter dext 280Å. These data, including the dimensions of alpha-beta
dimers were obtained from x-ray crystallography (Amos and Klug, 1974). The length of
microtubules (MT) can vary in the interval:
The spacing between the tubulin monomers in MT is about 40 Å and that between alpha-beta
dimers: 80Å are the same in longitudinal and transversal directions of MT.
Microtubules sometimes can be as long as axons of nerve cells, i.e. tenth of centimeters long.
Microtubules (MT) in axons are usually parallel and are arranged in bundles. Microtubules
associated proteins (MAP) form a "bridges", linking MT and are responsible for their interaction
and cooperative system formation. Brain contains a big amount of microtubules. Their most
probable length is about 10^5Å.
The viscosity of ordered water in microtubules seems to be too high for transport of ions or
metabolites at normal conditions.
All 24 types of quasiparticles, introduced in our hierarchic theory of matter (Kaivarainen,
2000a ), also can be pertinent for ordered water in the microtubules (MT). However, the dynamic
equilibrium between populations of different quasiparticles of water in MT must be shifted
towards primary librational effectons, comparing to bulk water due to clusterphilic interactions
(see Kaivarainen, 2000d). The dimensions of internal primary librational effectons have to be
bigger than in bulk water as a consequence of stabilization effect of MT walls on the thermal
mobility of water molecules, increasing their most probable de Broglie wave length.
Strong interrelation must exist between properties of internal water in MT and structure and
dynamics of their walls, depending on [alpha-beta] tubulins interaction.
The biggest cavitational fluctuations of internal water - (superdeformons) in the volume of
3D standing IR photons can induce total cooperative disassembly of MT. Superdeformons
excitation in MT internal water could be an explanation of experimentally revealed dynamic
instability (catastrophes) as a stochastic switching of MT growth to shrinkage (Mitchison and
Kirschner, 1984; Horio and Hotani, 1986; Odde at al., 1994). The frequency of superdeformons
excitation in bulk water is about 10^4s¯¹, however, in cytoplasm of high viscosity this value may
strongly decrease till 10^2s¯¹. Consequently, the coherent excitation of superdeformons in
cytoplasm of neurons ensemble in a course of their firing may be interrelated with disassembly of
actin and partially MTs, leading to [gel--> sol] transition.
Each of dimers, composing MT, is a dipole with negative charges, shifted towards
subunit (De Brabander, 1982). Consequently, microtubules, as an oriented elongated structure of
dipoles system, have the piezoelectric properties (Athestaedt, 1974; Mascarennas, 1974).
Intra-microtubular clusterphilic interactions (see Kaivarainen, 2000d) stimulate the growth
of tubules from tubulin dimers. The structural physical-chemical asymmetry of dimers in
composition of microtubules determines their different rates of growth from the opposite ends
([+] and [- ]).
The equilibrium of "closed" (A) and "open" (B) states of nonpolar cavities between and
tubulins in (alpha-beta) dimers can be shifted to the (B) one under the change of external electric field in
a course of membrane depolarization. It can be a consequence of piezoelectric properties of MTs
and will stimulate the formation of coherent water clusters in the open nonpolar cavities of
(alpha-beta) dimers. The open cavities can serve as a centers of water cluster formation and molecular Bose condensation (primary librational effectons). The coherent properties of water and total mass of
water in form of Bose condensation in the hollow core of MTs system should be enhanced as a
result of this stage of elementary act of consciousness.
The parallel orientation of MT in different cells, optimal for maximum [MT-MT] resonance
interaction by means of coherent IR photons, could be achieved due to twisting of centrioles,
changing spatial orientation of MT. However, it looks that the normal orientation of MT as
respect to each other corresponds to the most stable condition, i.e. minimum of potential energy
of interaction (see Albreht-Buehner, 1990). It is important to stress here that the orientation of
two centrioles as a source of MT bundles in each cell are always normal to each other. The
stronger is the nerve excitation, the bigger is population of coherently firing cells, tending to
similar orientation of their internal MT.
The linear dimensions of the edge llb ef of coherent water clusters - primary librational
effectons in pure water at physiological temperature 36ºC - is about 11 Å and 45 Å in the ice at
0°C. We assume that in the rigid internal core of MT, the linear dimension (edge length) of
librational effecton, approximated by cube is between 11Å and 45 Å i.e. about llb ef ~23Å.
It will be shown below, that this assumption fits the spatial and symmetry properties of MT
very well. The most probable group velocity of water molecules in composition of primary lb
The librational mobility of internal water molecules in MT, which determines vlb gr should be
about 2 times less than in bulk water at 37°C, if we assume llb ef ~23Å (see Kaivarainen, 2000a).
The length of a orchestrated group of primary lb effectons in the direction of microtubule
main axis can be determined by the length of edge of primary librational IR deformons, i.e. about
Results of our computer simulations for pure bulk water shows, that the distance between
centers of primary [lb] effectons, approximated by cube exceed their linear dimension to about
3.5 times (Fig 1b). For our case it means that the average distance between the effectons centers
It gives a possibility for equidistant (80 Å) localization of the primary lb effectons in clefts
between alpha and beta tubulins of each (alpha-beta) dimer in the internal core of MT.
Such a regular spatial symmetry of the internal flickering clusters distribution in MT is an
important factor for realization of the [optoacoustic-conformational] signal propagation of
configurational waves along the MT, accompanied by their bending. It is related to alternating
[closing <-->opening] clefts between alpha and beta tubulins. This large-scale protein
dynamics is correlated with dissociation/association of water clusters in clefts between
(alpha -beta) dimers of MT due to [lb/tr] convertons excitation with frequency ~10^7s¯¹.
The size of tr primary effectons in MT is significantly smaller, than that of lb ones and the
microviscosity of water in regions, occupied by translational effectons - lower. The average
angle between alpha and beta tubulins change and the cavity’s [open <--> closed] states
equilibrium shifts to the closed one as a result of conversion of lb effectons to tr ones
(dissociation of coherent water cluster).
The dynamic equilibrium between tr and lb types of the intra MT water effectons can be very
sensitive to alpha-beta tubulins interactions, dependent on nerve excitation.
3. Role of Actin Filaments and Microtubules in Neuron’s Body Volume/Shape Adaptation
to Nerve Excitation
Fig. 1. Theoretical temperature dependencies of: (a) - the space between centers of primary
[lb] effectons; (b) - the ratio of space between primary [lb] effectons to their length; (c) - the
space between centers of primary [tr] effectons; (d) - the ratio of space between primary [tr]
effectons to their length.
Our hypothesis of IR superradiation, produced by water in MT’s - is an inherent property of
our primary effectons, resulted from mesoscopic molecular Bose condensation (Kaivarainen
1992, 1995). This idea is independent of similar, used in the model of MT’s as wave guide of
superradiation for longitudinal photons, proposed by Jibu et al., (1994). The difference in two
approaches is that we assume in MT the existence of "transverse" radiation of IR photons as well
as "longitudinal" ones. Such assumption means that the density of electromagnetic energy in
MTs is low enough and not destroying the protein’s of MT’s. Another advantage of our model -
is the possibility of electromagnetic interaction between MT’s by the exchange of coherent
transverse IR photons. We also do not need to use in our model the strong assumption of
self-induced transparency in hollow core of MT, because the half of wave length of IR librational
photons (about 5 microns) is much more than the distance between neighboring primary librational
effectons, radiating photons.
In the normal state of nerve cell the dynamic equilibrium the gradient of ionic concentration,
produced by ionic pumps activity, is compensated by the electric tension gradient. The
electrochemical gradient is equal to zero at this state. The equilibrium concentration of
Na+ and Cl- in space out of cell is bigger than in cell, the gradient of K+ concentration has an
opposite sign. The external concentration of Ca2+ (about 10^- 3M) is few orders higher than in
cytosol (about 10^- 7M) . Such a big gradient provide fast and strong increasing of Ca2+
internal concentration after activation of corresponding membrane channels.
At the "rest" condition of equilibrium the resulting concentration of internal anions of
neurons is bigger than that of external ones, providing the difference of potentials equal to
50-100mV. As far the thickness of membrane is only about 5nm or 50Å it means that the
gradient of electric tension is about:
100. 000 V/sm
i.e. it is extremely high.
Depolarization of membrane usually is related to penetration of Na+ ions into the cell. This
process of depolarization could be inhibited by selected diffusion of Cl- into the cell. Such
diffusion can produce even hyperpolarization of membrane.
As far the pairs of tubulins have the properties of "electrets" (Debrabander, 1982), the
piezoelectric properties of core of microtubules can be predicted (Athenstaedt, 1974;
Mascarenhas,1974). It means that structure and dynamics of microtubules can be regulated
by electromagnetic field change, which accompanied the nerve excitation.
In turn, dynamics of tubulins of MT’s hollow core affects the properties of internal ordered
water. Shift of the [open<--> closed] states equilibrium of cavity between alpha and beta
tubulins to the open one in a course of nerve excitation should lead to:
[I]. Increasing the dimensions and life-time of coherent water clusters (primary lb effectons)
in the open nonpolar cavities between alpha and beta tubulins;
[II]. Destabilization of MT, increasing the probability of its partial disassembly and
disconnection with plasmatic membrane;
The stability of MTs in the nerve cell body is lower than that in bundles of axon or cilia. It is
a consequence of fact that microtubules in bundles are interconnected by "handle" - like proteins
(deneins) and other microtubule associated proteins (MAP).
The LS-dynamics of tubulin dimers represent the change of "bending" angle between alpha and
beta tubulins of about 210 Melki et al., 1989), corresponding to fluctuation of the inter-tubulins
cavity between closed (A) and open (B) states. Such bending may be a result of macroconvertons
(flickering clusters) excitations with frequency: 10^6 -10^7 Hz (Kaivarainen, 2000a).
The [assembly<--> disassembly] dynamic equilibrium of the actin filaments in cells in terms
of colloid chemistry represents [coagulation<--> peptization] or [gel<--> sol] equilibrium. These
cycles are rapid and correlate with neurotransmitter release and nerve excitation (Miyamoto,
1995; Muallem et. al., 1995). The increasing of cell’s volume, accompanied the actin
orchestrated disassembly is a result of cell "swelling" due to osmotic diffusion of water from the
extracell medium. The decreasing of water activity in cell, inducing osmotic flow of water to cell
cytoplasm, is a consequence of increasing of "bound" or "hydration" water fraction after actin
microfilaments disassembly to huge number of subunits. The nerve cell body and dendrites
swelling can trigger the collective nonspecific opening of big number of ionic channels and
strong resulting postsynaptic potential (PSP) emergency. The bigger is resulting PSP the higher is
frequency of the nerve impulses, generated by this cell and penetrating via axon to other neurons
(Coombs, et al., 1957).
The new assembly of MT-system in nerve cell’s body is accompanied by pumping out the
extra water from cell and restoring the state of rest of ionic channels. This may stimulate also the
reorganization of synaptic contacts on the cell surface.
The [gel-sol] transition, induced by cavitational fluctuations of water in cytoplasm
(superdeformons) can be accompanied by coherent "biophotons" emission/absorption in the
ultraviolet (UV) and visible range. Such radiation is possible due to water molecules
dissociation<--> recombination in a course of cavitational fluctuations. These high-frequency
coherent photons exchange, like the IR photons and nerve impulses, propagating via axons - may
be responsible for synchronized firing of distant neuron ensembles in head brain (Singer, 1993).
The firing is a complex nonlinear process. Its characteristic time of about 1/50 of second (20ms)
is much longer than pure quantum phenomena in MT like photons radiation and Bose
[condensation<--> evaporation], corresponding in our model to [lb/tr] convertons excitation
of the internal water in MTs.
One of the important consequence of our HMC is that interactions of distant neurons in head
brain can be realized not only by means of nerve impulse via axons. Simulteneous neurons
excitation may be accompanied also by quantum stage: resonant photon exchange between MT
of distant neurons.
3.1 The entropy-driven information processing
It leads from our HMC that changes of system of electromagnetic, acoustic and vibro-gravitational
3D standing waves in the ensemble of nerve cells, produced by the internal
water of MTs in course of braining - may change the properties of this water in a course of MT
system reorientation and ’tuning’.
This process induces redistribution of probabilities of different water excitations in huge
number of microtubules. It means corresponding change of informational entropy <I>, related to
microtubules in accordance with known relations (Kaivarainen 1995; 2000b):
where:Pi is a probability of the (i) state with energy Ei , defined as:
For the total system the relation between entropy (S) and information (I) is:
where statistical weight of macrosystem:
the total number of internal water molecules in macrosystem of interacting MT is:
[q is number of non degenerated states of 24 quasiparticles of intra MT water.
The reduced information of condensed matter (Kaivarainen, 2000d) to the number of
molecules (ni) in each kind of excitations:
- gives characteristic not only of quantity (I) but also about the quality of the information:
where N0 and V0 are the Avogadro number and molar volume; ni is a concentration of
excitation of (i)-type.
The distant energy exchange between MT, accompanied by the change of Pi for different
excitations can be considered as an informational exchange between nerve cells. It is related to
change of fractions of water excitations in system of interacting MTs.
Our model consider fluctuations and dissipation, stimulating [gel<--> sol] transitions and
synaptic system reorganization, as a necessary phenomena for brain "working". However this
CHAOS is organized by quantum phenomena, like mesoscopic Bose-condensation of water in
MT. The higher is quantum order and coherence, the less is the number of mistakes in brain
working. At the same time, the possibility of mistakes due to competition between discreet
quantum and continuous thermal properties, producing thermal fluctuations, Brownian
movement and decoherence - make the process of braining NON-DETERMINISTIC. The main
difference between computer and brain could be that in brain, in contrast to computer, the input
and output the information is not always adequate to each other.
The INTUITION from such point of view means the ability to choose one right solution
(rigorously inadequate) from huge number of wrong, but adequate to the available information. It
looks that associative memory, helping the right choose, is the most probable background for
4. Stages of Hierarchic Model of Consciousness
In accordance with our HMC, the sequence of following interrelated stages is necessary for
elementary act of perception and memory (see Fig.2), resulted from simultaneous excitation and
depolarization of big enough number of neurons, forming cooperative ensemble:
1. The change of the electric component of neuron’s body internal electromagnetic field as a
result of cells depolarization; 2. Opening the potential - dependent Ca2+ channels and increasing
the concentration of these ions in cytoplasm. Activation of Ca2+ - dependent protein gelsolin,
which stimulate fast disassembly of actin filaments; 3. Shift of A<--> B equilibrium between the
closed (A) and open to water (B) states of cleft, formed by alpha and beta tubulins in tubulin
pairs of microtubules (MT) to the right as a consequence of piezoelectric effect, induced by
depolarization of membrane of nerve cell; 4. Increasing the life-time and dimensions of coherent
"flickering" water clusters in MT, representing the 3D superposition of de Broglie standing
waves of H20 molecules in hollow core of MT. It is a result of the water molecules
immobilization by ’open’ nonpolar clefts of (alpha-beta) dimers in MT; 5. Increasing the superradiance
of coherent IR photons induced by synchronization of quantum transitions of the effectons
between acoustic and optic like states. Corresponding increasing of probability of
superdeformons (cavitational fluctuations) excitation in water of cytoplasm; 6. The disassembly
of actin filaments system to huge number of subunits, [gel--> sol] transition and increasing of
water fraction in hydration shell of proteins in cytoplasm. This transition is a result of
cavitational fluctuations and destabilization of actin filaments by Ca2+ . Corresponding
decreasing the water activity in cytoplasm - increases strongly the passive osmotic diffusion of
water from the external volume to the cell; 7. As a consequence of previous stage, a jump-way
increasing of the nerve cell body volume (pulsation), accompanied by disrupting the ( ) ends of
MTs with cytoplasmic membranes occur. This stage makes it possible for MTs to change their
orientation inside neuron’s body; 8. Spatial "tuning" - collective reorientation of MTs of
simultaneously excited neurons to geometry, corresponding to minimum potential energy of
distant (but not nonlocal) electromagnetic and vibro-gravitational interaction between MTs and
centrioles twisting; 9. Decreasing the concentration of Ca2 to the critical one, when disassembly
of actin filaments is stopped and [gel<--> sol] equilibrium shifts to the left again, stabilizing the
new MTs system spatial configuration and corresponding nerve cell body volume and geometry.
This new geometry of nerve cells after fixation of (+) ends of MTs back to plasmatic membrane -
determine the new distribution of ionic channels activity and reorganization of synaptic contacts
in all excited ensemble of neurons after relaxation, i.e. short-term and long-term memory.
This cyclic consequence (hierarchy) of quantum mechanical, physico-chemical and classical
nonlinear events can be considered as elementary acts of memorizing and consciousness. The
total period of listed above stages can be as long as 500 ms, i.e. half of second. The elementary
act of consciousness described, includes a stage of coherent electric firing in brain (Singer, 1993)
of distant neurons groups with period of about 1/40 sec. Corresponding frequency may be related
to frequency of superdeformons (cavitational fluctuations) origination in of cytoplasm,
stimulating [gel-sol] transition of cytoplasm, following after depolarization of nerve membranes.
This frequency for pure water, calculated on the base of Hierarchic theory (Kaivarainen, 1995;
2000a), is about 10^4 s¯¹. However, in viscous medium of cytoplasm it may be much lower
The process of cavitational fluctuations ’collapsing’ is accompanied by high-frequency (UV
and visible) "biophotons" radiation due to recombination of part of water molecules. These
biophotons may be responsible for short range morphogenetic field in contrast to coherent IR
photons, responsible for long-range morphogenetic field.
The dimension of IR superdeformon (3D superposition of IR photon) edge is determined by
the length of librational IR standing photon - about 10 microns. It is important that this
dimension corresponds to the average microtubule length in cells confirming in such a way our
idea. Another evidence in proof is that is that the resonance wave number of excitation of
superdeformons, leading from our model is equal to 1200 (1/cm) .
The experiments of Albrecht-Buehler (1991) revealed that just around this frequency the
response of surface extensions of 3T3 cells to weak IR irradiation is maximum. Our model
predicts that IR irradiation of microtubules system in vitro with this frequency will dramatically
increase the probability of microtubules catastrophes. It’s one of the way to verify our model
Except superradiance, two other cooperative optic effects could be involved in
supercatastrophe realization: self-induced bistability and the pike regime of IR photons
radiation (Bates, 1978; Andreev et al.,1988). Self-induced bistability is light-induced phase
transition. It could be related to nonlinear shift of [a<-->b] equilibrium of primary librational
effectons of intra MT water to the right as a result of saturation of IR (lb)-photons absorption. As
far the molecular polarizability and dipole moments in (a) and (b) states of the primary effectons
- differs, such shifts of [a<-->b]equilibrium should be accompanied by periodic jumps of
dielectric permeability and stability of coherent water clusters. These shifts could be
responsible for the pike regime of librational IR photons absorption and radiation. As far
the stability of b-states of lb effectons is less than that of a-states, the characteristic frequency of
pike regime can be correlated with frequency of MTs-supercatastrophe activation. This effect
can orchestrate the [gel-sol] transitions of neuronal groups in head brain.
Fig.2. The schematic presentation of the local, acousto-conformational and distant -
electromagnetic interactions between microtubules (MT1 and MT2), connected by MAP.
MAP– microtubules associated proteins stabilize the overall structure of MTs. They prevent
the disassembly of MTs in bundles of axons and cilia in a course of their coherent bending. In
neuron’s body the concentration of MAP and their role in stabilization of MTs is much lower
than in cilia. The local acousto-conformational signals between MT are realized via MTs -
associated proteins (MAP), induced by transitions of the cleft, formed by alpha and beta tubulins,
between closed (A) and open (B) states. The orchestrated dynamics of individual MT as quantum
conductor is a result of phonons (hvph) exchange between (alpha-beta) clefts due to lb/tr conversions,
corresponding to water clusters, "flickering", in-phase to [B<-->A] pulsations of clefts.
The distant electromagnetic and vibro-gravitational interactions between different MT are
the consequence of IR photons and coherent gravitational waves exchange. The corresponding
two types of waves are excited as a result of orchestrated (a<--> b) transitions of water primary
librational effectons, localized in the open B- states of (alpha-beta) clefts. When the neighboring (alpha-beta) clefts has the alternative open and closed states like on Fig 2, the general spatial structure
remains straight. However, when [A<-->B] equilibrium of all the clefts from one side of MT are
shifted to the left and that from the opposite side are shifted to the right, it leads to bending of
MT. Coherent bending of MTs could be responsible for [volume/shape] vibrations of the nerve
cells and the cilia bending.
The Brownian effects, which influence reorientation of MTs system and probability of
cavitational fluctuations, stimulating [gel - sol] transition in a course of nerve cells tuning and
excitation-relaxation cycles - represent in our model the non-computational element of
consciousness. Other models (Wigner, 1955 and Penrose, 1994) relate this element to wave
Audio/Video Signals Skin Transmitter, based on HMC
We propose the idea of new device, where the laser beam with cavitational fluctuations
frequency and ultraweak intensity will be modulated by acoustic and/or video signals. The
modulated output optic signals will be transmitted from laser to the nerve nodes of skin, using
wave-guides. It is supposed that the nerve impulses, stimulated by modulated laser beam, can
propagate via complex axon-synapse system to brain centers, responsible for perception and
processing of audio and video information. The long-term memorizing process also can be
stimulated effectively by Skin Transmitter.
The direct and feedback reaction between brain centers, responsible for audio and video
information processing and certain nerve nodes on skin is predictable. The coherent
electromagnetic radiation of these nodes, including the acupuncture one can be responsible for
One of the important consequence of our Hierarchic model of consciousness is related to
radiation of ultraviolet and visible photons ("biophotons") as a result of water molecules
recombination after their dissociation. Dissociation can be stimulated by cavitational fluctuation
of water in the volume of superdeformons, inducing reversible disassembly of microfilaments
and [gel-sol] transition. The frequency and intensity of this electromagnetic component of
biofield, in turn, can affect the kinetic energy of the electrons, emitted by skin in the process of
Kirlian effect measurement. Our model predicts, that the above mentioned stimulation of
psi-activity by resonant external radiation, should influence on colors and character of Kirlian
picture even from distant untreated by skin-transmitter points of skin. There are another resonant
frequencies also, calculated from our theory, enable to stimulate big fluctuations of water in MTs
and their disassembly.
Verification of these important consequences of our model and elaboration of Audio/Video
Signals Skin - Transmitter is the intriguing task of future. The practical realization of
Audio/Video Signals Skin Transmitter will be a good additional evidence in proof of HMC and
useful for lot of people with corresponding diseases.
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