Journal of Nonlocality and Remote Mental Interactions, Vol. I Nr. 1, January 2002
The imprinting and transmission of mentally-directed bioinformation
VI. A NEW WAY OF THINKING
IV. TRANSFER AT A DISTANCE
III. THE IMPRINTING OF INTENT
II. A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF HEALING ADJUNCTS
Abstract: This paper reviews current experimental data and working models pertaining to non-local communication and proposes that there may be two complementary mechanisms involved in intent-mediated healing: one based on direct transmission (entrainment) of specialized electromagnetic frequencies, observed primarily in proximal healing (therapeutic touch, laying-on-of hands, direct waiqi); and a second one, associated with distant healing and remote viewing/diagnosis, where the target's electromagnetic profile is modulated from a distance via partial entanglement of subject-target cognitive spacetime sheets, as per Pitkanen's Topological Geometrodynamics. In addition, possible mechanisms are suggested for adjunct-mediated distant healing and for the "qi strike" phenomenon of 5-elements Qigong. Several experiments are proposed to test these hypotheses.
Keywords: distant healing, remote viewing, intentionality, qigong, Topological Geometrodynamics, quantum entanglement, electromagnetic frequencies, DNA information coding, EEG, radionics, information flow
Of all the intent-mediated phenomena we are aware of, there is no doubt that self-healing carries the most significant potential, or that (fortunately) it is the closest to becoming integrated into our medical system, thanks to decades of research into the body's neuroimmunologic and electromagnetic control mechanisms. While the substrate of the biofield may continue to defy intuitive understanding for decades to come, we are at the moment in a position to focus quite effectively on the principles regulating psychosomatic modulation and even bioinformation resonance between proximal systems (Gotovski, 2000; Sidorov, 2001). But it is doubtful that we will make meaningful progress along this path until we come up with a working (experimentally-friendly) definition of consciousness - and the great mystery of consciousness is, of course, its apparent non-locality.
That the brain can produce specific effects on the body, or even an adjacent organism, by some form of frequency entrainment, is a stretch by current standards of thinking - but a conceivable possibility within our current spacetime framework. However, that similar effects can be achieved across thousands of miles, or through the agency of an adjunct such as a photograph or a piece of cotton, defies our intuition to such an extent that institutional science considers it more dignified to ignore than to admit such evidence in its present curriculum. And yet there is no more fertile ground for the investigation of consciousness than the hundreds of studies on spiritual healing (in the west) and qigong (in the east) that have been pouring out over the past several decades.
What do we know to date? Starting with Abrams' work almost 100 years ago, there has been an enormous amount of research and empirical evidence supporting the notion that living organisms are regulated by characteristic types of resonance in the electromagnetic and possibly other, more subtle spectra; that such forms of resonance are constantly modulated by the internal and external environment; and, finally, that imbalances in this resonant blueprint can be corrected by deliberate application of external frequencies, be it with the help of instruments such as radionic and MRT (microwave resonance therapy) devices, or through the agency of another organism, such as in therapeutic touch, external qigong or distant healing.
What we don't understand is the mechanism of this entrainment, in particular where distance becomes a factor. We are all familiar with the notion of phase-locked pendulums, where the largest one in the room ends up dictating the motion of every other clock in that room. But when the room spans thousands of miles, and when the regulating "frequency" is emitted not by a 300lb piece of brass, but by sheer thought - where do we begin our analysis? One way to go about it, we believe, is by "looking for the other clocks" - that is, by focusing on the specificity with which the target is identified in such distant interaction scenarios. How unique is the correlation between healer and target? How effective is this link, and what factors can be identified that modulate this effectiveness?
There are two classes of distant healing: 1. where the target is found by the healer on the basis of a name, location, birth date, etc (in remote viewing language, this would amount to a "coordinate"); and 2. where an adjunct (an object previously treated by the healer, such as water, cloth, a crystal, etc) is used by the patient with or without the healer's knowledge. What we propose is to look at the empirical "working principles" associated with these modalities, as well as the objective measurements performed so far on such adjuncts, and see what, (if any) conclusions can be drawn as to the substrate of distant mental action.
Some of the best reviews of distant healing (from both the practitioner's and the scientist's perspective) are found in Daniel Benor's book Spiritual Healing: scientific validation of a healing revolution (Vision Publications, 2001). Following are some examples from this collection:
Oskar Estebany (p39) was one of the most studied early healers in North America. He practiced a very common technique ("laying-on of hands"); he could treat 20-40 patients daily "without feeling tired or exhausted, and the last patient under my hands felt the same sensation as the first one". For distant healing, he concentrated on the patient and imagined performing the laying-on-of-hands over the patients' visualized body. He claimed that for distant healing to work, the patient must have been treated in person by him before, or had to possess an object treated by him. For this, he used cotton, drinking water, or pieces of paper on which he had written his name. In later, controlled studies, he convinced Bernard Grad to let him employ similarly treated pieces of cotton which were placed in the cages of mice with iodine-deficient thyroid goiter, and obtained significant healing results. He claimed that any material had the property of being imprintable by intent, but that some were more responsive (i.e water, fibrous material, wood); the reported that duration for which the object was held by the healer made a great difference on the effect it produced (he found approximately seventy minutes to be the required time), and that the energy transmitted was detectable as heat; finally, he found that the energy imprinted in the object decayed over time, and had to be reactivated by both the healer's reapplied intent, and the patient's effort to reconnect mentally with the healer.
Vladimir Safonov (p45) reports that distant diagnosis and healing: require good visualization of the person (face, clothes, voice), which is enhanced by a photograph; a laying-on-of-hands-type diagnosis is done mentally over the parts of the visualized body - with the sensations being identical to those one would feel on a real body, only fainter. A similar technique is reported by Yefim Shubentsov (p60)
Edgar Chase ( p55) worked as a healer for two decades, successfully treating relatively challenging cases such as cancer, MS and post-traumatic coma. He also discovered that pebbles he held for a while held curative powers for his patients. In distant healing, he found that placing a patient's photograph and a lock of hair either under his direct attention, or over a pebble that he had held extensively prior to the session, could transmit healing intent very effectively.
Marcel Vogel (p114), a top researcher at IBM for over 25 years, also did pioneering research into the therapeutic applications of specially-cut quartz crystals and their effect on water (3). He claimed that these crystals could amplify the user's mental vibrations like a laser, creating a coherent field of energy that could act as a "carrier wave of information". He used mental intent coupled with powerful exhalations (like qigong masters - LS) to induce vibrations in the crystal while holding it beside the patient's sternum. He also demonstrated that by circulating water around an intent-charged Vogel-cut crystal he could generate measurable changes in the water, such as a decrease in surface tension, increased conductivity, a significant drop in the freezing point (as low as -30 degrees), bi-directional alterations in the pH up to 3 points, the appearance of two new bands in the IR and UV absorption spectrum, and structural effects which could be transmitted to solutes (ie formation of needle-like silica crystals, as opposed to the amorphous silica observed in untreated water). "Boiling of water after structuring shows no changes in the UV spectrum, so one can conclude that a permanent chemical change has taken place", he noted. (This later point was also echoed by Dean, who found that the effects of healer-treated water are sometimes "carried over to a distillate" suggesting that more than altered hydrogen bonding must be involved - Benor, p. 161). In one of the more whimsical "applications" of his technique, Vogel used a radionic device in conjunction with a crystal to transfer information from an award-winning wine to one of lesser quality, and managed to "convert" the latter to a perfect duplicate of the original by circulating it around the crystal. (3).
Anomalous crystallization results and changes in surface tension and IR spectrum were also noted by the following healer: Olga Worrall (p. 152) worked with Robert Miller on a series of experiments, including one involving a cloud chamber. Worrall managed to produce a pattern in this cloud chamber by holding her hands around the unit, then the same pattern was repeated from a distance of many miles.
Douglas Dean and Edward G Brame found that healer treated water demonstrated changes with both IR spectrophotometry (indicating altered hydrogen bonding) and specific peaks with UV spectrophotometry. The half-life for these effects lasted from tree days to as long as three years, in partially emptied bottles. Similar results were confirmed by independent protocols conducted by Stephan Schwartz and Glen Rein and Rollin McCraty at the HeartMath institute (p153).
Finally, electronic devices have also been imprinted with intent and shown to alter the pH of water and enhance the growth and energy metabolism of larvae (Tiller, 1997)
In the January 1996 issue of MISAHA, Savely Savva reviews the research of Jacques Benveniste on homeopathic solutions and the "memory of water", after which he notes: "the water molecule as well as the near molecular interactions in pure water were studied for more than a century and no carries of memory in terms of observable physical parameters or hysteresis was found at this level up to now. The question is what or whose memory keeps the homeopathic solvent..."
In the case of intent-modified adjuncts, the question is not only one of memory, but of the very substrate that could make such mind-matter interactions possible in the first place. While homeopathy still allows us to think in classical terms such as structural defects and lattice energy, (Callinan), we are still quite reluctant to think of mental content in quantitative ways. If homeopathy has a lesson to teach us, it is that water forms an ideal medium for the amplification and detection of subtle effects. Indeed, water and aqueous solutions have also been a prime target for those studying mental intent (see above). But while homeopathic potency displays some degree of dose-effect dependence and sensitivity to ambient electromagnetic fields (Burlakova 2000, Callinan), are there similar quantitative correlations to be observed in the case of intent - and if so, what conclusions can we draw about its substrate?
We know that large distances (in the thousands of kilometers) do not appear to significantly reduce the effect size of laboratory experiments: studies have shown that the Raman spectra of tap water can be influenced by external Qi from a distance up to 1900km (Lin & Savva, 1996); this effect disappears gradually within a couple of hours. Similar distances have been used to test the effect of waiqi on the polarization angle of a He-Ne laser, the dynamics of a syngas system, the radioactive decay rate of Am241, the UV spectrum of solutions of salmon DNA, K2Cr2O7 salt and fluorescein dye and the EPR spectrum of AgBr (Lin & Savva, 1996; Lu & al, 1993; Yan & al, 1988; Li & al, 1988); significant changes in the UV absorption of de-ionized water were recorded under the influence of external Qi emitted by Yan Xin over a distance of 10,000 km (Lu & al, 1993);
IR spectrophotometry studies conducted by Schwartz & al (Schwartz, 1990) on sterile water samples placed in the proximity of Therapeutic Touch practitioners demonstrated statistically significant changes compared to control samples; however, the hypothesis that the time of exposure correlated with the intensity of the effect was not confirmed. On the other hand, some healers (see Estebany, Chase) clearly indicated that the effectiveness of an adjunct increased as they held it for prolonged periods of time. Since IR changes reflect only physical, hydrogen bonding alterations (which are temperature-dependent), whereas UV spectrum and healing properties of treated water have both been shown (Vogel, Dean - see section II) to occasionally withstand distillation, one might wonder whether we are witnessing the effects of two different intent-imprinting mechanisms. These effects also seem to decay with time, lasting from several days up to three years (Dean - section II ).
We know that water treated with a magnetic field has proven equal to, if not better than, intent-imprinted water at stimulating plant growth (Benor p152, 330); also, that the IR absorption spectra, surface tension and crystallization patterns are similar for both types of water treatment (Benor p152-3). Alfred Stelter described German engineer Grunewald's 1920 studies on a healer (Johannsen) who could do simple PK feats like depress an evenly balanced scale (similar gravitational effects are documented in Savva, 2000). As Grunewald studied the magnetic field in his hands, he noted that the field grew weaker just before the act was performed, and increased immediately after; also, by means of iron filings spread over glass plates, he photographed the magnetic centers around the healer's hands, and found that at times they seemed to lie outside the hand area, as if the field had been projected out temporarily (Benor, p 127). Unusual magnetic signatures have also been found by Wu & al, who used a zero-magnetism lab to demonstrate significantly higher (up to 105nT) signals during Qi emission by qigong practitioners compared to the controls (Lin & Chen, 2001). Significant increases in electromagnetic emissions (biophotons in the IR to UV range) have been frequently measured in the proximity of healers and even common subjects during the task of mental concentration (Sidorov, 2001)
In addition to the data presented above, there are countless studies (Oschman, 1997) demonstrating striking parallels between the effects on biological systems of external qi/therapeutic touch and non-ionizing, non-thermal exogenous EM fields: these include accelerated bone repair (1; Lin & Chen 2001; McGee & Chow, p166; Laycock); stimulation of nerve activity for pain relief, seizure control and post-stroke rehabilitation (1; 2; Lin & Chen 2001; McGee & Chow, p 89; Adams); enhanced soft tissue wound healing through de-differentiation and proliferation of adjacent cells (1; 2; Laycock; Benor p 203; Wirth, 1990); suppression of inflammatory responses in osteoarthritis (1; Lin & Chen 2001); enhancement of motor nerve regeneration and sensory nerve sprouting (1; Laycock; Lin & Chen 2001; Benor p 398,409; McGee & Chow, p169, 172, 191); bone marrow stem cell division and increased leukocyte activity (1; 2; Lin & Chen 2001; Yamamoto Y. & al, 1996a; Kataoka, T & al, 1997; Kataoka, T & al, 1997; Higuchi, Y & al, 2001; Benor p210, 356, 357; McGee & Chow, p166, 167); and winding/unwinding of DNA in solution (Lin & Savva, 1996)
At first glance, it would seem that most of the studies listed above point toward electromagnetic fields as good replicators of intent in mind-mediated effects. Indeed, we have argued before (Sidorov, 2001) that, under special conditions, resonant brainwaves may entrain the body's perineural system to deliver healing frequencies to diseased tissues, or become coupled to the Schumann resonance and thus transmit distant healing effects to the target. But even accepting the Schumann resonance as a non-dissipative mechanism of information transmission, we are still faced with the enigma of mental interactions that cannot be attributed to EM fields - such as the effects on internuclear and gravitational forces described above. The question we have to ask ourselves then is this: does focused intent produce both magnetic vectors (responsible for some of the observed properties, such as surface tension and IR spectrum changes) AND another type of non-local effect acting below the symmetry-breaking level of the four fundamental interactions - perhaps reflecting the existence of Kaluza-Klein-type compactified dimensions as a possible arena for universal holographic entanglement?
One of the most fascinating studies that might help answer this question is the "Phantom DNA Effect" first observed by Gariaev and Poponin in 1992 (see Gariev, 1992; Poponin). While measuring the vibrational modes of DNA in solution (using a laser photon correlation spectrometer), they noted that, when the DNA was removed from the scattering chamber, the autocorrelation function looked distinctly different from what they expected - which would be the same as before the sample had been inserted. As long as the space in the scattering chamber was not disturbed, this unusual effect could be observed for as long as a month. The authors' conclusion is that this phenomenon represents a new field structure being excited from the physical vacuum. The fact that this vacuum substructure associated with the DNA molecule can be coupled with conventional electromagnetic fields (laser beam) provides us with the first opportunity to study such "subtle energies" in a scientific, quantitative fashion.
This leads to the following question: could it be that a healer's focused intent to imprint a physical device acts as a coherent EM signal analogous to the laser beam, causing a deformation in the object's vacuum substructure? This could function as an "excited state" of the adjunct, which could then interact with the healee's electromagnetic field to produce the desired effect, almost analogous to a holographic set-up. The time-degeneration observed almost universally with such adjunct effects could be a function of the natural relaxation in the quantum-holographic substructure (QHS) strain. (Note: a somewhat similar mechanism has been suggested by Benford & al. in order to account for the holographic information encoding observed with Dela Warr images - see articles reviewed in this issue.)
Taking the analogy further, one could start to look at psychometric data (Jaegers, 1999; McMoneagle p113) in terms of QHS strains imposed by various actions and environments on the object being studied, and which could easily by identified by an operator who is fluent in the "sub-sensory" signatures carried by common acts. This could also provide an initial corroboration of the "relaxation" conjecture, by testing the relative sensitivity of a series of operators to actions performed over increasingly distant time intervals. Although it's possible that such strains vanish asymptotically (ie are never entirely lost, in effect providing a complete history of the object), it's also interesting to note that sometimes a "wrong reading" can be transmitted from one RV operator to the next (or to an entire group!) (5), suggesting that the "freshest" mental interactions leave the most pronounced imprints.
Is it conceivable that one day we'll be able to measure such subtle parameters in intent-imprinted objects? Moving from the subjective detection of such effects to their objective quantification would allow us to breach an important barrier in our current understanding by laying the foundation for a new set of "comutativity rules" with respect to the predictable application of mental intent to the physical world. Perhaps new technology such as the "Comprehensive Analyzer of Matter Properties" proposed by Kaivarainen (in this issue) could be used to detect changes between control samples and samples imprinted by healers, or between DNA solutions both before and after exposure to the laser beam (as per Gariaev protocol above).
While such subtle energy phenomena are generally considered anathema in most scientific circles (especially medicine), some very promising research is coming from the area of psychotronic farming, which employs radionic principles and techniques to promote sustainable agriculture approaches (Kelly 1997; Diver and Kuepper, 1997). Some of this work has been funded or conducted in cooperation with county extension agents and Farm Bureau workers, such as the large-scale experiments conducted in Pennsylvania, Arizona and California in the 1940 and '50. Today, thousands of farmers in the US and abroad are using these techniques
Peter Kelly, an electronics engineer who was the first president of the US Psychotronics Association, and who worked extensively on such applications, describes research that has been done on simple organisms such as corn borers, in which the pattern corresponding to the organism is transposed electronically and fed back 90 degrees out of phase; as the opposite wave forms cancel out, he claims, the "borers literally dissolve", leaving only "a wet smear" onto the ear of corn. This, he reports, has been observed with simple life forms such as bacteria and organisms in their larval stage, which "go back to their native materials, like water and basic energy"; in more complex forms, he believes, one is more likely to have some remnants of the original structure.
If these experiments can be replicated successfully, they would present us with some truly outstanding research possibilities - especially with respect to oncology. Spiritual healing literature abounds with reports of tumors, warts, and other diseased tissues "disappearing" under the effect of directed intent (8; Dimitriou; Benor p 167, 183, 409; McGee & Chow p 68, 50; Chen & He, 2001). Moreover, one could make a successful arguments that most of these lesions represent lower levels of organization than the healthy tissue surrounding them (malignant tumors, in particular, are typical examples of reverse differentiation). While nothing in the alternative healing literature could be met with more skepticism than such reports of instant "disappearance", here we have, for the first time, a possible mechanism in support of such claims.
EXPERIMENT 1: What we propose is that cancer cell cultures be tested in controlled protocols similar to the one described by Kelly, then compared to the effects on healthy cells and tissues. Electron microscopy and biochemical studies performed at various stages of "treatment" could also be useful in identifying whether the dying cells undergo the known processes of degeneration, or there is evidence of unexpected metabolic products. (Note: unusual biochemical processes have been demonstrated in patients doing Bigu, an intense form of medical qigong aimed at "dissolving" tumors while engaged in a 7-21 day meditation practice during which nothing is taken by mouth except water - see conference ref. )
Recent work on DNA information coding (Birshtein & al) suggests that "genome genetic and regulatory wave information is recorded at the polarization level of its photons" and is enacted both instantly and non-locally throughout the organism. The authors argue that the genome operates like a "complex multi-wave laser with adjustable frequencies", able to produce light and radio waves which regulate the biosystem's space and time organization. This complex background is the basis for the correct expression of genetic material (peptide codes) during embryogenesis and adult life, accounting for the elusive self-regulation and specificity of DNA function in various tissues and under various conditions. Statistical analysis using the Zipf-Mandelbrot law reveals that DNA non-coding sequences, which account for 95-98% of the genome, have more in common with natural languages and demonstrate more long-distance correlations than coding sequences; this, according to the authors, is a strong indication that non-coding areas are the basis for one or more biological languages and represent "a strategic informational content of chromosomes". Various solitons (optical, acoustic, conformational, rotable-oscillating, etc) excited in these polynucleotide areas, and transmitted over large distances significantly exceeding the hydrogen-bond length, "become the apparatus for continual (non-local) reading of context RNA sequences on a whole". Given that the expression (onset) of oncogenes and retroviruses such as HIV is known to vary widely among individuals and be largely context-specific, the authors suggest that external artificial modified fields may, in the future, help us modulate this apparent cellular context (environment) and thus keep such noxious genetic material dormant for indefinite periods of time. Experimental work has already been carried out, demonstrating the successful transfer of genetic information from a donor biosystem to an accepting one via high-frequency electromagnetic fields fed repeatedly through the optically-active donor biosystem and then delivered over a long period of time to the receiving biosystem in its early developmental stages. Hybrids created through the irradiation of eggs and seeds with such "genetically loaded" fields showed very specific mixed characteristics that were transferred to the next generation without need for further irradiation. An interesting suggestion made by the authors is that phenomena such as cellular apoptosis might be connected with an abnormal compression of photons by cell nuclei, which are accumulated to a maximal value and then destroy the nuclei. Since apoptosis has been demonstrated in waiqi-treated cancer cultures, and an increase in biophoton emission is often observed during "qi state" (Lin & Chen 2001; Chen & He, 2001; Sidorov 2001), this idea may offer useful directions for future studies.
As far-fetched as this research might seem from the point of view of orthodox molecular biology, it certainly provides strong support and an intriguing potential mechanism to previously unexplainable (but well documented) healing phenomena such as qigong, acupuncture, homeopathy, guided imagery and therapeutic touch. Even conventional western medicine is well aware that we all carry malignant cells in our bodies at all times, and that the onset of clinical cancer can very often be correlated with a stress-related trigger. So far, this has been attributed to a decrease in overall immune function known to occur when the organism is placed under stress. But if that were the only type of mental influence at work, it would be hard to explain the role of guided imagery in treating specific conditions (see below). Medical qigong tradition, and in particular the cancer-fighting philosophy of Master He's 5-elements qigong, has long argued that "imbalances" in the local qi levels (known to include both energetic and informational components) are responsible for the onset of clinical illness. There are numerous studies (4) indicating that mental imagery can bring about very specific, significant physiological and biochemical changes: these range from oxygen supply in the tissues, thermal changes and blood glucose levels to galvanic skin response and the firing of single motor neurons. In addition, a study conducted by Achterberg and Rider on training patients in cell-specific imagery of either T lymphocytes or neutrophils demonstrated statistical correlations with the type of imagery employed (4). This suggests that the connection between mental intent and physiological regulation at the tissue level is much more specific than previously assumed on the basis of several simple neuro-endocrine cascades.
As we proposed in an earlier paper (Sidorov, 2001), the specificity of guided imagery (either as such or as part of qigong practice) may be the result of unique windows of frequency (solitons) which correspond to specific "actions"; these are originally excited at the level of the cerebral cortex, then travel along neural and perineural pathways to the distal organs and tissues where the effect is to be exercised. It is possible that the act of concentration on complex sensory modalities of one target (ie the vividness of imagery) entrains larger areas of the cortex into this coherent wave pattern, and thus translates into a more powerful, laser-type signal (it has often been observed that the effectiveness of imagery is correlated with its vividness, or the ability of the patient to "tune into it"). But how does the signal "stick" to the affected area, and not to others? Gariaev's contextual holographic paradigm offers a possible answer to this question: it is not that the brain-engendered soliton travels only to the affected tissue, but rather that the locally disturbed contextual architecture provides a responsive environment for the modulating effects of the signal - in other words, the pathologic equilibrium is less stable than that of healthy tissue, and thus more easily modified. (It is interesting to note, in this context, the phenomenon of "qi striking" that commonly takes place during qigong meditation, whereby a patient focusing only on overall "emptiness" or purification/restoration of a healthy state, suddenly notices pain in the diseased areas; the pain is often very intense, wave-like (pulsating), and vanishes as soon as the meditative state is ended. Traditional explanations view this as "qi striking the energy blockage", with the pain diminishing as the blockage is eliminated over weeks or months of practice. Alternatively, we could postulate that the abnormal contextual holographic "architecture" leads to an increase in the local perineural resistance, which in turn leads to an accumulation of charge and the depolarization of local pain fibers under the continued input of "circulating qi", or mentally-pumped laser-like solitons.)
One other experiment that appears to provide support (as well as promising research directions) for this model is described by Daniel Benor in his book, Spiritual Healing (p. 159). In a study conducted by Dr. Glen Rein with Leonard Laskow (a physician and healer), they compared the magnetic patterns (obtained with a flux-gate magnetometer) when various states of consciousness, or various thoughts, were evoked. There were distinctly different patterns when the subject:
1. opened his "crown chakra"
2. asked that Spirit flow through him
3. tried to inhibit tumor cell growth by entering an "unconditional loving state"
4. tried to inhibit tumor cell growth by focusing on a "return to natural order state"
All patterns were markedly different from a normal state of consciousness. The first action produced a very sharp onset, equally sharp dissipation, and lasted only 8 seconds. The second tracing was uniquely different from the other types, and was characterized by sharp, frequent peaks in the negative direction. Finally, the difference in the biological response on the tumor cell cultures was mirrored by the magnetic signature between the last two trials - with the last one producing robust effects, while the third causing only weak, non specific patterns.
This opens the door for some very interesting future experiments, in that we might be able to start identifying which "altered states of consciousness" or types of imagery are more effective than others. It is interesting to note that the second and third "visualizations" are similar to prayer type methods, while the first, second and last exercises can be easily found in qigong meditations.
The studies described above offer some preliminary evidence that biological structures possess subtle regulating mechanism which can be modulated by mental intent and/or electromagnetic fields loaded with a donor's bioinformation. If that is the case, the next question has to be: how uniquely is the target affected by a specific intent? In other words, what is the medium of transfer and what accounts for the effectiveness with which the true target is acted upon, if indeed every action can potentially modulate the substructure of every object?
The difficulty of this question is compounded by the possibility that we may be dealing with several complementary mechanisms. Indeed, there are early indications that mental healing has both energetic and informational components, and that these may not always be at work together.
For example, in the course of his studies on healer-treated water, Douglas Dean found that healers who produced a strong effect in the UV range generated weak results in the IR range, and vice-versa (Benor, p 153). Are these effects the result of different physical pathways? Another issue is raised by the apparent "toll" healing takes on different practitioners. In (2) it is stated: "the practitioner, by effort of will, extends the biofield (principally from the hands) into the recipient's body with increased force, sometimes from a distance of several feet. Chinese qigong masters are considered especially adept at this. The process appears to be draining...". On the other hand, healers like Oskar Estebany (above) reported that they could see up to 40 patients a day with no significant diminution in the effect felt by the patient. Some practitioners claim that during distant healing one should not try to transmit personal energy, but only intent, as "energy does not travel" across large distances (Master He, personal communication). Finally, there are accounts that qigong masters can draw either on their own energy or on "universal energy" during the healing process, with considerable differences in their immediate post-session metabolic profile. For example, masters who claimed to draw on their own energy during emission showed increased levels of venous blood cortisol, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and a decrease in NK cell activity (with the opposite effects measured in their patients); at the same time, masters using "universal qi" showed a decrease in the levels of the first four parameters and increase in the last one (while their patients demonstrated a decrease in ALL factors!) (Higuchi & al 1999, a,b). While it is true that much more research is needed before such conclusions can be generalized, one has to begin asking pertinent question about the source and directionality of bioinformation flow in nature, and the observations listed above are as good a starting point as any.
It is conceivable that some practitioners may use one form of mental healing (intent only), while the others are actually generating and concentrating body frequencies in addition to the intent - such as in waiqi, which draws extensively on the healer's resources. Indeed, certain parallels can be easily noted between mind-mediated and non-ionizing, nonthermal exogenous EM field effects (1; Sidorov, 2001): for example, the organism's response to such fields is highly frequency specific and the dose-response curve is non-linear; also, extremely weak fields can, at the proper frequency and site of application, produce large effects that are either beneficial or harmful. The fact that many of these healing/enhanced growth effects can be reproduced by magnetic resonance therapy and other devices involving artificial electromagnetic fields (see section III) suggests that part of the mechanism involved in spiritual healing may be simply of a matter of learning to focus such specialized frequencies via different meditative techniques, producing an entrainment of oscillations between the healer's qi (either brainwaves or Laogong bioemissions, such as in therapeutic touch) and the patient's biofield. Furthermore, the fact that so many cultures use the hands to imprint a healing object or transmit healing effects to a body (see section II) suggests that the hand's Laogong point is an effective "convergent lens" or filter of these healing frequencies, and also that proximity between such a "lens" and the patient's disease areas is beneficial.
Our working hypothesis is that we are dealing with two different mechanisms: while adjacent healing draws on the healer's energy (entrainment of biofield frequencies), in distant effects the healer's intent is carried via a non-energetic substrate (quantum holographic network) to the target site, where its information is converted to electromagnetic (hence physical) signals using the patient's own energy. Thus, we can expect that direct healing may demonstrate some degree of inverse relationship between effect size and distance to target, while non-local healing would remain distance independent, but would likely demonstrate a different time of onset compared to the local processes, corresponding to the mechanism of "transduction". The time to onset may, in fact, be lesser or greater than with local healing - it is conceivable that direct EM entrainment may take longer than transfer of intent coupling directly to the organism's EM field. Of course, the simultaneous exercise of both functions in local healing cannot be ruled out (it is hard to imagine the complete lack of mental intent during Therapeutic Touch or similar modalities!), but might be taken into account by an experimental protocol such as (E2). We hope that experimental work along the lines suggested below will help confirm or disprove this hypothesis. Preliminary studies on "tohate"/physiological/ EEG synchronization between sender and receiver are already an important first step in this direction (see section V), and provide a good foundation for this type of protocol. ( Note: It is important to use quantifiable, instantly measurable physiological parameters in as nearly-identical as possible targets in simultaneous measurements of the same "run").
Experiment 2: We suggest comparing the effect size/time to onset on skin conductance fluctuation on lab mice (identical line) placed as follows: M1 - in nearest proximity to Qigong master; M2 - still in proximity, but a little further; M3 - at same distance as M1, but with master unaware of its presence (assume all mice placed in opaque cages); M4 - placed 1km away from master; M5 - 10 km away; M6 - 1 km away, with master unaware of its existence. We suggest measuring these effects an ALL mice while the master is focusing on different targets - ie M1, then M2, M3, M4, etc. Such data might yield important clues, not only about the distance-effect correlation, but also about the importance of mental contact with the target. A variation on this protocol could involve physical parameters such as the IR/UV shift of water, change in laser polarization angle, etc.
While this might shed some light on the mechanism(s) involved in healing, we are still left with a deeply puzzling question: how do we account for target specificity - ie does the healer connect to his/her subject?
One way, commonly found in the radionics literature, is by using a hair or blood sample as "witness": by placing this sample in the witness well of the instrument and then adjusting various "rate" knobs (corresponding to various electrical resistance values), the operator supposedly can effect both a diagnosis and desired changes in the subject, even when the latter is not present (Dimitriou; Kelly,1997; Diver & Kuepper, 1997; Benford & al, 2001 ). How is this possible? The answer, according to the principles of radionics, has to do with structural similarities. The closer the structural similarity of two objects, the greater the intrinsic frequency similarity, hence the higher the likelihood of resonant transfer between them. At a quantum level, the complex structure of a DNA molecule provides an ideal, uniquely characteristic "frequency signature"; using a DNA sample such a blood vial or hair lock in the "witness" well of a radionic machine, then modulating its QHS through the appropriate EM rate, would, according to this model, induce corresponding changes in the target because of this resonant transfer across the "sea" of subvacuum frequencies. Experiments such as those performed by M. Sue Benford, where exposing half of a hair sample to ionizing radiation produced radiographic film exposure underneath the other half of the sample, located many miles away (personal communication), the work done by Cleve Backster on cellular communication (Stone, 1995) and the success of radionic broadcasting in agriculture (Benor p329; Kelly 1997; Diver & Kuepper 1997) seem to provide initial support to this (so far empirical) paradigm.
EXPERIMENT 3: We suggest comparing the effect size of healing intent with replicable radionic settings on various biological samples differing by increasing degrees of genetic variation (ie bacterial samples with increasing degree of mutation through successive generations, but all originating from "witness" line ).
Furthermore, adjuncts may function as relay stations: as we have argued earlier in this paper, it is possible that the focused, laser-like application of thought AND immediate physical presence of the healer during the preparation of the adjunct creates a specific interference, or distortion, in the objects's subvacuum structure; once the object is in the presence of the patient, it is possible that every time the healer enters this particular state of mind, regardless who it is for, the healing thought acts as a reference beam and reactivates the adjunct objects's "healing hologram", causing it to emit specific frequencies which couple with and modify the patient's electromagnetic field as if the healer were right there; it is up to the patient to tune into a receptive state of mind as often as possible, and allow those frequencies to be captured by his/her organism (possibly the reason for which Estebany mentioned that the patient had to occasionally re-evoke the memory of the healer, and the healer had to try and re-establish connection with the patient and/or healing adjuncts).
Are some actions more likely to "excite" this quantum substructure, and are some excitations more lasting than others? Are some objects more "imprintable" with intent? We are years away from answering such questions with any degree of certainty, but one observation may prove useful at this point: the (empirically observed) superior properties of water, hair samples, crystals and fibrous material as links in distant healing suggest that they might provide a form of signal reinforcement through the high repetition of a relatively simple, homogeneous molecular arrangement. The aqueous solution of blood could amplify the QHS signal of the DNA in a blood vial used as a witness, and the same could be accomplished by the hundreds of keratin fibers in a hair sample.
V. "Coordinate healing"
If the radionic use of a physical "witness" to link to a distant target seems outlandish by the standards of orthodox science, then identifying a target based on a mere code or geographical coordinate must be considered utterly unworthy of mention. Yet the Stargate program, which was run by the government for almost 20 years, demonstrates that remote viewing and related human abilities are more than a hoax. Remote diagnosis and healing on the basis of a mere name and birth date, or location, are known in every traditional culture, while prayer groups, whose efficacy has been demonstrated again in recent studies (Benor, p 194-198), require little more than this information. Correct diagnoses obtained by psi healers on the basis of name and birth date ranged in accuracy from 60 to 93% (Benor p 48, 278) Adjunct-free distant mental interactions on living systems (DMILS) have been demonstrated in many controlled experiments and include statistically significant effects on bacteria, yeast, fungi, mobile algae, plants, animals, and humans (6; Benor p 287-8, 350; Braud & Schlitz 1991; Hirasawa & al, 1996; Yamamoto & al, 1996b; Hirasawa & al 1996; Yamamoto & al, 1998; Yamamoto & al, 2001; Kawano & al, 2001; Yamamoto & al, 1996c; Kokubo & al, 2000; Yamamoto & al, 1997; Yamamoto & al, 1999). Finally, we have also seen in earlier examples (Edwards, Safonov, Shubentsov) how mentally visualizing the patient helped the healer perceive not only the areas of disease, but also, sometimes, the patient's environment, including many details that were confirmed at a later date. This type of inadvertent remote viewing suggests that a common mechanism may be responsible for target identification in both RV and remote healing. What this mechanism may be, however, is one of the greatest enigmas that we are faced with today.
It is a truism to say it - that one must have enough information to uniquely locate a target. But what kind of information are we talking about? While one could argue that we are dealing with DNA (or its associated vacuum substructure) in the case of hair or blood, or a subliminal electromagnetic unique signature registered on the photographic film in the case of a picture, when we are given merely a name or geographical coordinate, there is no such physical fingerprint - only information, in the most trivial (or perhaps sublime) sense. But information implies meaning (to at least one individual), hence the fact that being given a (to the healer) meaningless name or location allows him to establish a true connection suggests that the connection is made through the minds of those who know this meaning, OR, indeed, that we all share One Mind, and that all information is available as long as one has a 'minimal synaptic connection' to it. Thus, while a name, birth date or geographical coordinate might not immediately appear to carry as many bytes of information as, say, a DNA sample, it is an intriguing question to consider whether placing such a target designation within a remote viewing or distant healing context might activate ALL the information available globally about this coordinate - much like the address of your primary school might open floods of memories - except that, in this case, the individual "modules" being activated belong not to one, but to over 6 billion brains. Such streams of intersecting information could easily designate a target in a unique way, and further provide information about present location, future plans, and so forth. This seemed to be the case with Harry Edwards, who routinely "glimpsed" the physical surroundings of his distant target in great detail (later confirmed - Benor p. 84); and also the mechanism for coordinate remote viewing and psychometric readings in forensic remote viewing, both of which are known to occasionally yield information about past or near-future developments associated with the target, and which MAY represent thinking processes (ie memory or planning) associated with the target, rather than actual time travel on the part of the viewer.
Experiment 4: To test the One-Mind hypothesis, we propose the following experiment: designate a fictitious location XY (ie a box located on the tenth floor of a five story building); tell ten different people various "characteristics" of this fictitious XY target, and also that someone will attempt to remote view it in the near future; then follow a normal RV protocol with multiple viewers and see what the operators come up with: if some of the fictitious characteristics show up, there's a fairly good chance that the One Mind model is correct. A further variation might involve an attempt by a qigong master to distantly focus on and effect a visible change on such a "target": assuming he is told that the target is a hexane sample, and that this is consistent with the various "clues" given to the ten participants, it would be most interesting to see if his perception or ability to lock onto the target is different than in the case of a real object, and also whether a subsequent RV experiment indicates any perceived changes correlating with the master's intent to alter the sample color by bromination (see "Bromination of Hexane" by Yan Xin)
Several very interesting observations related to this question have been made by Joseph McMoneagle (McMoneagle, 1997), subject Nr. 001 in the STARGATE program, and arguably the most prominent remote viewer in this country: in his over 15 years of experience designing, evaluating and participating in RV protocols, he noted that "coordinates have been incorrectly read, but the right target described; the spelling of a target's name [was] wrong, but the information [was] correct about the targeted individual; the system breaks down at the last minute and a target envelope isn't put where it is expected to be, but the description of the target is accurate anyway"; and finally, that, when several potential targets were present within a given coordinate area, the correct target was nevertheless the one that the operator locked onto (McMoneagle, page 132, 136). How can we interpret this? McMoneagle believes that intent (the intent of the remote viewer, the interviewer, the target selector, the analyst and the judge ) is the glue which holds RV together: "all of reality, as we know it, exists because we intend it to". Moreover, he believes that a feedback mechanism is at work behind RV and the even stranger, pre-cognitive episodes he experienced: in other words, that "at some point in the future, I will come to know the answer to whatever question has been put to me in the past. Therefore, whenever the information is passed to me in its accurate form, that is when I send it back to myself in the past" (McMoneagle, p 253) .
This may be true, but what if feedback is not provided? It should be very easy to test this model by simply comparing the success rate of a series of RV experiments where feedback is denied to the average success rate for the same operator and the same level of difficulty when feedback is provided in the usual manner.
"Feedback" may, however, represent more than just the protocol described above. One possibility explored by Matti Pitkanen's Topological Geometrodynamics model (see this issue) is that time-like entanglement may be possible between cognitive representations (spacetime sheets in p-adic domain of 8-dimensional universe) in such a way that experience is shared between past and future sub-selves: these sub-selves may, but do not have to belong to the same individual (ie may be associated with different real-domain spacetime sheets).
But how could a distant healer engage his target in the absence of even a subtle physical link (resonant transfer)? One wildly speculative notion is that, perhaps, the convergence of information has itself a "subtle body" in the form of a QHS pattern, and that the healer acts on this pattern with his modulating intent. Safonov and Shubentsov's reports (see section I) that the mental scanning of a patient's visualized body gives rise to the same sensations as if the body were physically present seems to point in this direction.
One type of study that seems to offer very promising directions in this vastly uncharted territory is the mapping of EEG profiles and other physiological parameters between sender and receiver during shielded, blind "tohate" protocols. In these experiments (conducted since 1996 in Japan), a sender and a percipient are located separately in two sensory-shielded rooms, and extrasensory transfer of information is attempted while both are connected to electroencephalographs. (The increase in alpha waves of receivers under the effect of external qigong, but not under sham qigong, has been repeatedly demonstrated [Tsuda, 1999; Sidorov 2001] and represents a useful marker of bioinformation transfer.) The sender transmits his intent during randomly selected intervals and the receiver attempts to guess the onset of transmission (or is simply monitored for neuromuscular and other physiological changes in some of the experiments). While most of the studies showed no significant conscious ability to correctly guess this interval, statistically significant correlations were consistently observed between the actual sending time and the alpha wave amplitude changes in the receiver; (the information transfer seems to be composed of two reactions, the first one noted in the occipital and parietal regions, followed by a second reaction in the frontal region). (Hirasawa & al, 1996; Yamamoto & al, 1996b; Hirasawa & al 1996; Yamamoto & al, 1998; Yamamoto & al, 2001) In addition, alpha wave sychronization (in both amplitude and peak frequency) was demonstrated between pairs of qigong masters and their receivers while they were separated by a distance of 4 Km (Kawano & al, 2001). Other physiological chages that correlated with the sending period (but not with non-sending intervals) were motion time (start of recoil) in the receiver (Yamamoto & al, 1996c) and receiver skin conductance fluctuations (Kokubo & al, 2000) Several studies also looked at the time lapse between the onset of task (sending) and the onset of subconscious physiological response in the receiver, and found it to be approximately 10-17 seconds (Yamamoto & al, 1997; Yamamoto & al, 1999).
Similar results have been demonstrated by Braud and Schlitz over a 13 year period (Braud & Schlitz 1991; 6), and include effects on electrodermal activity, blood pressure, muscular activity, brain rhythms, as well as the spatial orientation of fish, locomotor activity of small mammals and the hemolysis rate of human red blood cells.
The time elapsed between intent sending and subjective perception or characteristic physiological changes might give us important clues as to the processing mechanism of such non-local bio-information. Knowing exactly when a target has been engaged would allow us to focus a lot more precisely on the electromagnetic profile of the recipient during that interval, and could perhaps reveal typical signatures of a biofield/EM coupling, such as surges in biophoton emission, activation of specific brain modules and effects on in-vitro DNA samples of the recipient (while placed in a scattering chamber as described by Gariaev&Poponin), etc. We suggest continuing this series of experiments with the following variations: increasing the distance between sender and percipient and comparing effect size/response onset time; designating the target (percipient) by coordinate only (as opposed to using photographs or direct acquaintance); and taking simultaneous measurements of sender's/recipient's biophoton emissions while studying scattering chamber effects of their respective DNA both with and without simultaneous laser stimulation. If focused intent does indeed function as a laser-like frequency, it would be highly interesting to observe its effect on an adjacent DNA sample scattering signature at the time of demonstrated effective biotransmission, as indicated by recipient's alpha wave synchronization.
In spite of research spanning several decades, it appears painfully obvious that, where distant mental interactions are concerned, we are merely shooting experimental arrows in the dark. Observation-supported theory is the foundation of any science, but in spite of our tremendous advances in theoretical physics, we still seem unable to connect fact and theory when it comes to psi research. As Savely Savva pointedly argues in his article (see Paper Reviews), we are dealing with a new science, which means that we need a new way of thinking about reality. Relevant questions and relevant experiments will come only on the heels of a theory capable of unifying our current observations into a meaningful whole.
One extremely interesting model that promises to answer many of the questions raised in this paper is Matti Pitkanen's Topological Geometrodynamics (see articles in this issue).
According to TGD, entanglement between two subsystems (shared experiences) can occur on a cognitive (ie in p-adic domain) OR real level, which results in the formation of "join along" boundaries and wormholes through which electromagnetic fluxes can flow from one system (spacetime sheet) to the other. This is possible only between systems which possess the same local topology.
Under normal circumstances (awake state), entanglement of the self with other subsystems is unlikely because of the decomposition of spacetime into real and p-adic regions, implying an island-like separation between cognitive domains. However, during sleep or trance the self's topology changes to that of the surroundings, and entanglement with other subsystems occurs, which translates into mental images.
If this is correct, then one can begin to understand the mechanism of remote viewing and remote healing as a "directed entanglement" whereby an altered state of mind (trance) would allow a portion of the self's topological hierarchy (ie a subself's topology) to transform (mimic) according to a given cognitive spacesheet = the "coordinate" given in the RVor healing session; moreover, distant healing would involve transfer of specific electromagnetic frequencies through the Planck-length wormholes and join-along boundaries postulated by TGD, which would allow for the near-instant transfer of information.
It is also possible that focusing on an adjunct modifies its p-adic topology (the equivalent of Poponin's "subvacuum structure" ?), which in turn may entangle with the healee's cognitive topology and trigger specific brain EM frequencies which are then transmitted along the perineural system as per our previously discussed model (Sidorov, 2001). This form of p-adic-to-real phase transition at the neuronal level has been described by Pitkanen in (7), and is similar to other scenarios where amplification leads to macroscopic effects starting from quantum-level processes. The observation that brain synchronization between sender and receiver (Hirasawa & al, 1996) follows an occipital-to-frontal alpha wave propagation suggest that specialized modules in the brain are where this initial phase transition occurs. In fact, TGD views the brain as a sensory organ for our extended, electromagnetic selves, which have a length scale at least the size of the Earth's diameter - making for an interesting convergence with ideas presented in (Sidorov, 2001). During normal awake states, the "sensory aperture" of the brain restricts perception to an area immediately adjacent to the body; however, in trance or sleep states this aperture seems to widen and allow the self's perceptive field to expand to its full scale, making possible phenomena like out-of-body experiences. Whether this "wavelength window" is the result of predominant brainwaves characterizing such states remains to be seen.
One interesting observation that might relate to this comes, again, from Joseph McMoneagle (McMoneagle, p 245-6), who noted marked differences between his RVand OBE perceptions: " While out of body, you know that you have gone somewhere and left your body behind. [...] You see exactly what you would have seen with your physical eyes, only it looks clearer, sharper; there is more color. In order to see something on the other side of a wall you must move through the wall to see it. [...] You can see what appears to be the molecular energy fields within objects..." In RV, "the information comes in numerous ways: symbols, sounds, feelings, tastes, pictures [...] and holistic impressions. [...] There is a lot of information available in the remote viewing state that is not available in the out-of-body state. For instance, in the out-of-body state it is impossible to see what language a person speaks at the target, you can't tell someone's nationality unless it's obvious by dress, you can't tell how someone feels. In the remote viewing state, you can discern all that without "seeing" it".
Although this is a purely subjective piece of data, such testimony coming from a highly experienced and respected professional must be taken into account: if so, it does seem to present strong evidence that Pitkanen's preliminary results are correct, and that we are probably dealing with two non-local mechanisms - topological cognitive entanglement in the case of RV, and classical EM perception in the case of OBEs.
Finally, a very intriguing (and important) point to consider is the principle governing the direction of energy/information transfer between two entangled spacetime sheets. Many remote healers have emphasized the need for "protection" against the possibility of picking up the disease they are trying to heal (Benor p. 59, 61); there is also evidence from experimental work with cell cultures that disease information can be transmitted via biophotons or other "subtle mechanisms" (Rubik, 1993). Given that most forms of healing involve a "re-normalization" of the organism's biofield, one has to wonder why it is that the correct program (frequency?) manages to entrain the abnormal one, rather than the other way around - and under which circumstances the reverse may be true. Somewhat related is question we approached earlier - that is, does a Qigong master using "universal energy" precipitate a p-adic-real phase transition to create a negative energy spacetime sheet in order to absorb EM energy from the surroundings via boundary wormholes? (see Benor p70, Higuchi & al 1999, a,b)
These are only a few of the possibilities raised by TGD and similar theories. It cannot be overemphasized that a close working relationship between theoretical and experimental groups will be the key to meaningful progress across this terra incognita. Furthermore, we believe it is imperative that the subjective and empirical observations of those directly implicated in psi performance (such as qigong masters, remote viewers and others) be gathered and considered with the utmost seriousness by those charting the course of future research: given that all we can currently measure with scientific methods are second-level effects of the biofield, it is time to accept that the subjective experience of such individuals is the closest we'll come to observing "un-camouflaged" reality.
Based on the above discussion we conclude that mental intent has two components: one is energetic/informational, and consists of specialized electromagnetic frequencies and interference patterns which provide a continuous "dialogue" between mind, body and environment (including other minds). The second component is a coupling law responsible for the formation of "cognitive bridges" between operator and target, and may well be topological in nature (see Pitkanen articles in this issue). The accuracy of target specificity in coordinate remote viewing and diagnosis strongly suggests that entanglement occurs among all participants in a given intentional set-up, much like the simultaneous activation of various brain modules in object recognition.
It is likely that progress will be made faster with respect to decoding the informational/energetic component of intent - most of the current research focuses on this aspect, as it seems more accessible to current experimental approaches. However, we would like to emphasize that target specificity remains the central challenge of non-locality, one whose solution will probably revolutionize our entire view of reality. Thus, we believe that further investment in fields such as radionics, topological geometrodynamics and remote viewing is essential in uncovering the nature of this elusive entanglement.
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