Journal of Nonlocality and Remote Mental Interactions Volume II Number 2 July 2003


July 15th, 2003


Lian Sidorov A. Distant mental interactions, entanglement and energy signatures

B. What is the earliest physiological detector of psi information?

Matti Pitkanen: Some tests for TGD inspired view about remote mental interactions

Daniel J. Benor Interesting Topics for Future Research

Distant mental interactions, entanglement and energy signatures

by Lian Sidorov


What is the significance of electromagnetic surges detected at the target in remote conscious interactions? What role do these signatures play, or what are they an indication of? What about their time profile - onset and decay time, interference effects, etc? Are there any correlations between sender and target electromagnetic fluctuations in terms of frequencies, polarization, phase, etc? What about the sign of the energy - is there an actual transaction between sender and target, a "remote metabolism", as Pitkanen proposes? What are the implications of this electromagnetic effect on the physiology of living structures? How can we connect it with Gariaev's and Popp's models of endogenous coherent fields and their role in genetic regulation? And what place, if any, do they have in Backster's work with inter-species communication, or the EEG synchronization between distant human subjects?


Unusual electromagnetic signals have been reported around both sender and target in remote mental interactions. For example, unusually high static charges (up to 221 volts) from the bodies of healers and psi-gifted people have been reported by Watkins, Hochenegg, Shallis and Green [Benor p157-8]. Nakamura measured a drop in surface temperature and an increase in biophoton emission intensity from the hands of practitioners in the qigong state, and Wallace found that human biophoton emissions could be increased by subjects at will [Rubik, 2000]. Chen [Chen & al, 2001] reports that "receivers" of external qi demonstrated an increase in the palm temperature during the reception intervals, while no such changes were noted outside these (blind) intervals. Adamenko reported that one of his PK subjects (Vinogradova) was able to distantly induce an electric charge on objects, prior to moving them (IEEE Symposia p 218) Reports of high surges in the magnetic field surrounding healers, or significant effects on distant magnetic sensors, have been published by Ullman, Watkins, Puthoff and Targ, Zimmerman and Ostrander and Schroeder, and Sergeyev [Wortz, 2002 , Benor p 168-9, Sidorov 2001]. Photographic film exposure in association with healing or clairvoyance experiments has been demonstrated in independent studies by Watkins, Turner and Zhao Yong-Jie [Benor p 157, 169]. Water previously held by healers has been shown to expose photographic film sensitive only to the high ultraviolet range [Benor p 78]. Finally, the intentional production of images on photographic film by mental projection has been documented by Eisenbud [Benor p 171]. In addition to these effects, there are literature reports of consistent pattern formation in cloud chambers with similar healing intent expressed from both near and remote distances [Benor p 152], and of atypical trace ions present in the exposed regions of dental film used as target in remote conscious interactions [Benford 2002]. Radin reports in a 1991 paper [Radin 1991] that the background ionizing radiation could be decreased in accordance to task instructions (p<0.05), only to suddenly increase above control levels 20 seconds after the treatment period.

Lin and Chen (2002) have also reviewed research demonstrating that external Qi could accelerate chemical reactions by up to 400% from a distance of two to ten meters; these studies were replicated over 500 times with different qigong masters, producing consistent results, with no significant change in the control groups. These "chemical detectors" include the oxygenation of glucose as catalyzed by glucose oxidase (measured in the presence of luminal, which reacts with hydrogen peroxide to produce a photoelectric current); the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen; and the bromination of hexane under natural lighting conditions.

In addition to physical and chemical target systems, there is abundant evidence from in-vitro and in-vivo models that emitted qi can affect a wide range of biochemical processes, including major metabolic indicators. For example, Chinese researchers have shown that emitted Qi can increase the ATP/ADP quotient in cardiac muscle, lower the oxygen consumption in liver cells [3] and increase blood plasma cAMP and ATP levels [Chen and al. 1989; Luo and al., 1988; Shen and al. 1990; Lin and Chen, 2002]. At the same time, there is consistent evidence that the internal cultivation of qi increases ATP levels [Jahnke 1990, Lin H. 1988] while the emission of qi produces a rapid, marked depression in the sender's serum ATP concentration [Wang and al. 1988] - suggesting that waiqi requires considerable energy expenditure

Furthermore, there are literally hundreds of studies, spanning many decades and several continents, which consistently show that focused intent can accelerate the growth rate of cell cultures, yeasts, bacteria and plants, and which correlate with more recent histo-molecular studies demonstrating statistically significant increases in DNA, RNA and protein synthesis (see Benor 2001, Chen and Sidorov 2003 for reviews).

Finally, there is evidence that human subjects engaged in advanced qigong practice can function normally on a highly reduce caloric intake, a "super-efficient state" known as Bigu, whose metabolic profile is considerably different from that of normal fasting [Huang 1988; 1; 2]

Pitkanen's general TGD model of consciousness proposes that remote mental interactions are based on entanglement between sender and target, corresponding to the creation of topological bridges (massless extremals, MEs) and geometrical supracurrents which serve as a source of coherent photons and ions by their interaction with local magnetic flux tubes [Pitkanen 2003-b, 2003-a, 2002]. Depending on the direction of information flow (anomalous cognition versus psychokinetic effects such as healing) and the relative temporal coordinates (i.e. target being in geometric past or future with respect to the sender), these non-dissipative, frequency-specific energy "transactions" can be positive or negative in sign, corresponding to the insertion of energy into a remote target, respectively the "drawing" of negative energy such as phase conjugate laser beams.

According to Pitkanen's TGD model of consciousness, the generation of quantum bound states involves the liberation of the binding energy as usable energy [see Pitkanen 2003a, section 4.2]. Given the fact that oxidative metabolism is abnormally low during brain synchrony, Pitkanen has argued that entanglement (both between neuron groups of the same brain, and between viewer/target) provides a new kind of metabolic mechanism. This seems to be supported by another interesting hypothesis put forth by Peter Fox [Hameroff], regarding the oxygen requirements of consciousness itself: based on evidence from brain-imaging techniques which show large increases in blood flow accompanied by little or no increase in oxygen uptake in areas of high cognitive activity, the theory suggests that the normal stream of consciousness is in fact phasic, consisting of rapidly alternating aerobic and anaerobic processes; the aerobic, dissipative phase involves extero-/proprioceptive/output interactions, while the act of consciousness itself represents the anaerobic, non-dissipative phase. In this context, it is interesting to recall those rare but persistent accounts [Varela; Murphy and Donovan] of yogis being able to suspend their breath for 8-9 minutes or even more at a time - presumably to enhance the depth of absorption.

According to the TGD length-scale hypothesis, these entanglement processes form the basis of coherence in macroscopic systems such as living organisms and some of their EM signatures should correspond to characteristic energy values (a "universal metabolic currency spectrum") of fundamental biochemical and physiological reactions; some of the quantitative predictions of TGD include the .5eV associated with ATP ==>ADP hydrolysis (corresponding to the transfer of a proton between different spacetime sheets); the typical EEG resonance spectrum (corresponding with cyclotron frequencies of biologically important ions); and the concatenated energy cycles involved in photosynthesis and cellular ionic pumps [see Pitkanen 2003 - b, c, plus TGD Predictions in this section]

In addition to such inter-molecular and inter-cellular communication, remote regulatory and metabolic influences could theoretically be exerted by a healer on a target's endogenous electromagnetic somatic field via minimally energetic, but frequency-, phase- or polarization-specific photon signatures. That very weak electromagnetic fields can have major, frequency-specific effects on the genetic expression of a living target has been proven by Becker, Blank and Goodman, and many other recent biophysics studies [see Sidorov and Chen, 2003 for review]. Further, Gariaev and Kanzheng have shown that genetic information can be modulated by the polarization of laser beams made to interact with embryonic material, [Gariaev 2000, 2002a,b], while Popp and others at the International Institute of Biophysics have given evidence that the interference patterns and power spectra of endogenous, ultraweak biophoton fields play a major role in cell distribution (tissue architecture) and biological rhythms [Popp FA and Chang J, 1998; Ho M.-W. and Popp F.-A. 1989; Popp FA, 1999; Renger G. (1998); Chwirot BW, 1998; Chwirot BW, 2001; Popp FA, 2002; Popp FA, 1986; Chang JJ and Popp FA, 1998; or see Sidorov and Chen 2003 for review and discussion]

Are such mechanisms, mediated through the modulation of endogenous biophoton fields by entanglement EM signatures, responsible for the distant healing and growth stimulation effects reported in the literature? Certainly, if only regulatory mechanisms were involved, the amount of energy required for the transaction could be minimal, with possible subsequent amplification by the body's multi-modal holographic blueprint (see Gariaev, Popp) or via Pitkanen's many-sheeted laser action (see TGD Predictions) in which very weak intensities of emitted negative energy biophotons induce a cascade of positive energy photons. However, the existence of a phenomenon like Bigu, as well as the cAMP/ATP studies reviewed above, suggest that we should at least investigate the possibility of a true remote metabolism: the actual injection of energy into a target system (or drawing from "universal qi", as in Bigu and other meditative states). For example, the directionality of various PK effects noted in DMILS studies suggests that a simple, identical intention to insert, respectively draw energy from the target, could easily account for opposite effects in a broad range of parameters, such as growth rate acceleration/deceleration, or raising/lowering the target's skin temperature, all of which have been empirically verified (see above references). The effect of external qi on chemical reactions [Lin and Chen] also suggests that the emitted qi might be able to supply the system with missing activation energy (although, in catalyzed reactions, an effect on the conformation of the catalyst is an equally valid explanation for these observations, as evidenced by some of the studies reviewed in Chen and Sidorov 2003).

Clearly, even a cursory review of the evidence such as we have presented above strongly suggests that some form of energy transfer is involved in remote mental interactions. Unfortunately, the data is too heterogeneous at this point, with subject-target separations ranging from near-proximal to thousands of kilometers and from anecdotal accounts to well-replicated, controlled studies. The challenge is to pursue the hypothesis of a "remote metabolism" as a program of standardized, controlled experiments - and to explore the mechanisms through which such energy transfers could take place within the framework of entanglement or other forms of non-dissipative, target-specific remote communication models. Of the different classes of experiments discussed above (physical, chemical and biological targets), the benefits and disadvantages of each should be clearly understood in order to select the ideal models: for example, while physical detectors of EM signatures might seem to be the most suitable targets for such a purpose, the complexity of such equipment makes it a source of many possible confusing variables, as the sender's intent might inadvertently act on the electronic components or produce internal noise through a variety of pathways that do not necessarily reflect direct energy transfer (see Lin and Chen 2002 for an excellent discussion on this topic).

Simple targets such as uncatalyzed chemical reactions may help us differentiate between effects due to actual injection of energy and those where a conformational change in the catalyst effectively lowers the activation energy barrier. Furthermore, some preliminary methods for qualifying and quantifying this energy at the sender and receiver could be attempted, in order to establish a basic relationship between the energy emission at the sender and the effect at the target. Also, considering how many remote mental interactions have been shown to be bi-directional, depending on the intent, we could consider testing for the opposite effect at the target - that is, for evidence that the "sender" is in fact deliberately withdrawing energy from the target system.

Finally, should the hypothesis of an energy transfer be confirmed, the possibility of ion "leakage" in the vicinity of the target, as proposed by Pitkanen and suggested by Benford's preliminary experimental results, should be pursued as the next stage of this program - for example, by using distilled water or other very pure media as remote targets in which to look for the presence of trace ions as compared to control samples.


I. Metabolism and bioregulation

We suggest choosing a primary cell line, culturing it in normal growth medium for a few days, then dividing it in three identical samples and stopping any further feeding for two of these cultures. Place these two samples in identical but separate locations, then have a qigong master emit daily distant qi toward only of the sample, with the other used as control. After several days, the three cultures can be compared in terms of viability (by a direct count using a hemocytometer) and metabolic activity (using the tetrazolium salt assay).

If the survival rate in the experimental group is greater than in the no-feed control (based on direct count techniques), then one of three things can be concluded: 1. that the healer has remotely inserted energy which was used to continue normal metabolic processes; 2. that the healer has managed to increase the utilization efficiency of any present energy reserves; 3. that normal energy-consuming processes have been arrested. For this reason, we suggest that the tetrazolium salt assay be used to measure actual metabolic activity: since only viable cells reduce tetrazolium salts to colored formazan compounds (which can be subsequently quantified with an ELISA plate reader), and since actively dividing cells are more metabolically active than resting cells, this simple assay could provide a better measure of the metabolic energy requirements of the target (experimental) culture, by comparing the results with both the control and normally-fed culture. Another possible measure of metabolic activity could be based on incubating the three cell cultures with labeled DNA precursors such as 3-H Thymidine and then measuring the total amount incorporated by the different cultures as a measure of DNA synthesis. Finally, the amount of ATP present in the experimental and control samples could be compared at the end of the trial, and based on the estimated metabolic requirements of the experimental sample it could be roughly determined whether the remote influence resulted in enhanced energy utilization and/or an actual energy supply.

Note that this experiment is essentially a cellular, external qi version of Bigu studies - testing the ability to fast extensively by "feeding on qi"! The advantage of such a model is that the experimental target and conditions can be easily standardized for replication purposes, not to mention the absence of possible interference from the target's own consciousness; the greatest source of variability, in this case, remains the Qigong master's own mental state during the course of the experiments, which of course cannot be exactly reproduced.

(I wish to thank P. Groza for some excellent suggestions regarding this test)

II. Direct detection and analysis of ME spectra

Another possibility would be to use living and non-living remote viewing targets enclosed (separately) in a dark chamber where the sample can be maintained at a constant temperature. A low noise photomultiplier in single photon counting mode can then be used to compare target photon emissions at baseline with those during and after (successful) RV sessions or remote external qi emissions. A variety of photomultipliers have been developed for the detection of ultraweak photon emissions from living systems [see Heering W., 1998; Hiramatsu M., 1998; Popp Fa.A. and Shen X, 1998; Bajpai R.P., 1998] and have a spectral sensitivity from 200 to 800 nm. Since we can assume that non-living targets are more stable in terms of spontaneous fluctuations of low-level emissions (BPEs are dependent on biological rhythms) we could use such objects to:

1. look for unusual photon spikes detected at the target during any successful remote viewing sessions (methods for subtracting various sources of noise and measuring specific frequency windows are described in ibid.);

2. compare the spectra of target photon spikes in all samples and look for patterns, especially with respect to living versus non-living targets (entertaining the possibility that living systems might absorb such entanglement photons and re-transmit stimulated emissions in different spectra, after fulfilling specific physiological needs such as the absorption of missing activation energy in "pending" processes).

3. test whether different tasks/qigong intents produce different energy signatures (ME pulse frequencies)? This question might be answered by using very sensitive measurement devices, such as photomultipliers, and comparing the power spectra obtained by having the viewer probe the target in different ways, or having a qigong master emit opposite intents at randomly predetermined intervals. Note that such evidence of characteristic EM signatures reflecting varying mental intents has already been reported by Rein and Laskow [Benor p. 159], who found that four different intentions by the same healer produced distinct magnetic signatures and corresponding biological effects on tumor cell cultures.

4. test whether the hypothesized ME effects are additive: does the photon spike show greater intensity when several individuals focus on the target at the same time? This could be verified by having one subject focus on the target continuously, while the second operator attempts contact with the target only during randomly specified intervals - then comparing the power spectra for these different conditions (of course, natural fluctuations in focus make this a less than ideal model - a far more robust constructive interference effect might be demonstrable by looking at any number of "end-result" parameters such as RNG deviations or cell culture growth rate).

5. if the remote viewer is lying down in another dark chamber [see Cohen and Popp, 1998; Gall & al., 1998 for set-up] and verbally recording his/her impressions, it might also be possible to detect unusual photon spikes from typical areas of high emission (such as hand Laogong point, or forehead) and correlated these with the target signatures. (Alternatively, hand bioemissions only could be recorded, by placing the hand in a well-sealed dark chamber). Is there a reproducible frequency shift, or time delay between verified viewer impressions and target photon emission peaks? Do different tasks/intents produce different sender energy signatures (hypothesized ME pulse frequencies)? This question might be answered by comparing the power spectra obtained by having the viewer probe the target in different ways.

6. Additional information could be gained by monitoring a dark room subject during EEG synchronization with a remote participant exposed to random sensory stimuli [Wackermann 2003; Grinberg-Zylberbaum & al, 1994; May, Targ and Puthoff, 1979 and Puthoff and Targ, 1979], then superimposing the time-oriented EEG tracings on the photon emission record to see if unusual energy signatures can be identified. The time lag between such EEG synchronization and any hypothesized photon emission spike could yield important clues about the temporal spacing of these hypothesized entanglement signatures and /or duration of ME bridges. Is the energy signature produced in zero-time, or does it take the 13 - 17 sec sometimes observed with EEG alpha entrainment between sender and receiver [Yamamoto 1997, 1999]?

III. Entanglement with future targets: is there a detectable ME signature?

Given that in TGD precognition involves "the ability to receive negative energy ME's" by entangling with the target in the geometric future, we hypothesize that positive energy signatures might be detectable at the target during the time interval specified by the remote viewing task.

To test this possibility, we could use a system in random flux in a photodetector chamber as a target, and ask a remote viewer what it will show at a future time x. For example, we could use a dark screen computer that selects and records random images from a large pool, so that the response is free (rather than binary, which could subconsciously lead to a pk intent) - then analyze the photon emissions record for one hour before and after the target time. While the dark screen is necessary to avoid variations in background photon levels due to the luminosity of different images, the computer record could show precisely which image was displayed at time x. Will the emissions record show a positive spike around the "x hr" mark, as we hypothesize?

IV. Time profiles of ME signatures: what is the lifetime of entanglement bridges?

The robustness of sender-target connections is one of the most important questions in remote mental interactions. If indeed psi effects are mediated via some form of entanglement (which so far appears to be the only explanation for their remarkable target specificity), then the problem of macrotemporal coherence is of utmost importance, considering the fragility of even the simplest quantum systems. Atmanspacher, Walach, Dossey and others have suggested that a broader, less restrictive model of quantum entanglement ("weak quantum theory") must apply to complex macroscopic systems, in particular conscious organisms, in order to account for some observed phenomena such as transpersonal experiences [Atmanspacher and al., 2002]. Alternatively, in Pitkanen's TGD, the fact that space-time surfaces replace point-like objects as fundamental geometrical-material quanta results in the existence of a huge number of "hidden" degrees of freedom for the shape of classical spacetime surfaces (spin-glass degeneracy). Since the boundary bonds connecting two elementary particles can take an infinite number of different shapes, the degeneracy of bound states for two atoms is much greater than that of their free states, and this degeneracy increases with the complexity of any given material system, which is seen as a topological "condensate" of fundamental spacetime quanta. Therefore in TGD, the more complex a system is, the greater its spin-glass degeneracy, the longer the decoherence time of its bound states. For living, conscious systems, which possess at least a minimal degree of complexity, the degeneracy of entangled states is sufficiently great to offset thermal perturbations for observable, macrotemporal periods of time [Pitkanen 2003-a].

What is the lifetime of entanglement connections and how can we begin to measure their strength?

The transduction between the hypothesized ME pulses and noticeable physiological effects at the target is probably a non-instantaneous process, which makes it difficult to assess the time characteristics of pure ME transactions or the duration of entanglement bridges. However, it may be possible to link two inert targets as part of an RV protocol, then observe for how long the "activation" of target 1 continues to produce an effect at target 2. For example, we could use two inert samples A and B in a dark chamber fitted with a photodetector as described above and designate both with the same XYZ target until it is established that the remote viewer has made contact with both (analogous to creating an entagled photon pair). Then target A could be separated from target B and a new X'Y'Z' coordinate could be assigned to A. Does the viewer continue to report information about both A and B? Are there any abnormal photon spikes at B during this second session? And for how long can such an effect be observed? How long does it take for the photon spectra at A and B to return to base levels after the viewer re-directs his focus/ends the session? Is there a "phantom" effect noticeable, as suggested by the fact that many pk effects appear to take hours or days to return to base levels? Is there a persistent change in the spectrum of photons emitted by the target even if photon emission intensity returns to base levels - and if so, is this the basis for "intent-imprinting devices" as demonstrated by Tiller [2001]?


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1. The First National Conference on the Bigu Manifestation, Health Effects

and Scientific Research of Yan Xin Qigong Pennsylvania State University,

June 2000. http://www.clubs.psu.edu/yanxinqigong/report/

2. Press Release from the International Yan Xin Qigong Association.

June 26, 2000. http://www.majon.com/advpr/listing/biguphenomenon.txt

3. Qigong Science Institute, China//Beijing College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China. Effect of emitted Qi on the reperfusion injury of myocardium. 1st World Conf Acad Exch Med Qigong Beijing 1988


What is the earliest physiological detector of psi information in the transduction pathway to conscious awareness?

Lian Sidorov

Questions: How do various structural and physiological responses (such as DNA/cell membrane/microtubular conformation, galvanic skin response, brain evoked potential and EEG) line up time-wise in anomalous perception tasks such as presentiment or telepathy? How central is the role of the brain in anomalous perception and what does that tell us about the mind/brain boundary?

Background: Based on Cleve Backster's demonstrations that human leukocytes in solution continue to respond electrophysiologically to the emotional/mental state of their donor even when separated by hundreds of miles [Stone, 1994, 1995; Jensen, 1997]; on proof that conscious intent can statistically and directionally affect the molecular conformation of DNA, RNA and protein, as well as the rate of DNA replication, transcription and translation, differentiation, mutagenesis and programmed cell death when applied to in-vitro and in-vivo experimental models [see Chen and Sidorov 2003 for full review]; on DMILS data showing that human subjects can directionally modulate distant receivers' physiological parameters like galvanic skin response, heart rate, blood pressure, skin temperature, muscular activity and brain power spectra [Braud and Schlitz 1991; Benor 2001; Delanoy 1993; Yamamoto & al. 1997, 1999; Chen & al. 2001; Braud 2000], from distances up to thousands of kilometers; on evidence that some physiological parameters of human subjects (such as the galvanic skin response, or brain potentials such as the contingent negative variation) can anticipate a future sensory stimulus by as much as several seconds [Radin 2000-a.b; Radin 1997; Bierman and Radin 1997; Norfolk 1999; McMoneagle 2003]; and on evidence of EEG synchronization between distant human subjects when only one was exposed to a sensory stimulus [Wackermann 2003; Grinberg-Zylberbaum & al, 1994; May, Targ and Puthoff, 1979 and Puthoff and Targ, 1979]; we suggest the following experiment:


Using Backster's set-up to first verify a "connection" between donor and cells/DNA in solution, we can compare the onset of deviation from baseline in 1. EEG/ brain evoked potential vs. 2. skin galvanic response vs. 3. cell culture polygraph response vs. 4. DNA solution polygraph response and UV absorption spectrum (indicating changes in DNA conformation) in a distant subject exposed to a random auditory or emotional visual stimulus. According to current precognitive/pre-sentiment studies, a galvanic skin response is registered up to 8 seconds prior to the subject becoming conscious of the stimulus. Does a similar presentiment response manifest in other physiological parameters too? If so, which is the earliest, and what inferences can we make about the primary interface between psi information and our sensory/mental apparatus?

Backster's classical set-up with "entangled" plants or cell populations could alternatively be used to monitor psi reactions in the distant, non-threatened organism by comparing biophoton emissions (BPEs) during positive electrophysiologic responses to the baseline BPE. For example, a cell culture or DNA solution could be placed in a dark photodetection chamber, after verifying connection with the donor as per Backster's protocol [Jensen 1997]; exposing the donor to random emotional stimuli (after screening for idiosyncratic responses as per Radin protocol [Radin 2000-b], and comparing the timing of these stimuli with any positive/negative spikes in the target sample biophoton emission: this might offer important quantitative clues about the timing, strength and time profile of such entanglement bridges. However, since the physiology of all living organisms is in constant flux, resulting in varying levels of BP emission, it would be preferable to use inert systems as targets to avoid additional sources of error in the measurement of such hypothesized entanglement photons.


Benor, D J (2001) Spiritual Healing: Scientific Validation of a Healing Revolution, 1st edn.Vision Publications, Southfield MI 2001

Bierman D. and Radin D. I (1997) Anomalous anticipatory response on randomized future conditions. Perceptual and motor skills, 84 (689-690)

Chen K and Sidorov L. (2003) Effects of Intent and Mental Status on Biological Subjects. 1st Int Conf on the Science of Whole Person Healing, Washington D.C. March 2002

Braud WG & Schlitz M J (1991) Conscious interactions with remote biological systems: anomalous intentionality effects. ISSSEEM Journal 2 (1) 1991

Braud W. (2000) Wellness Implications od REtroactive Influence: Exploring an Outrageous Hypothesis. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 6[1]:37

Chen W., Kokubo, H., Nakamura, H., Tanaka, M., Haraguchi, S., Zhang, T., Kokado, T., Yamamoto, M., Kawano, K and Soma, T (2001) Skin temperature chages of receiver's hand in remote action experiment. Journal of ISLIS 19(1) March 2001

Delanoy (1993) Experimental Evidence Suggestive of Anomalous Consciousness Interactions. 2nd Gauss Symposium, Munich, August 1993

Grinberg-Zylberbaum J., Delaflor M., Attie L. and Goswami A. (1994) The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox in the brain: the transferred potential. Phys. Essays, 7 (1994) 422-427

Jensen, D. (1997) The Plants Respond: an Interview with Cleve Backster. http://www.derrickjensen.org/backster.html

May E.C., Targ R., Puthoff H.E. (1979) EEG Correlates to Remote Light Flashes unde Conditions of Sensory Shielding. In: Tart, Puthoff and Targ (Eds.) IEEE Symposia on the Nature of Extrasensory Perception. 2nd. ed. Hampton Roads Publishing, Charlottesville, VA 2002

McMoneagle J (2003) Landscaping the Mind: Space-Time Grids, Information Coding and Meaning Retrieval in Remote Viewing. Journal of Nonlocality and Remote Mental Interactions II [2] July 2003 www.emergentmind.org/mcmoneagle1.htm

Norfolk C. (1999) Can future emotions be perceived unconsciously? An investigation into the presentiment effect with reference to extraversion. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh

Puthoff EH, Targ R. A Perceptual Channel for Information Transfer over Kilometer Distances: Historical Perspective and Recent Research (1979). In: Tart, Puthoff and Targ (Eds.) IEEE Symposia on the Nature of Extrasensory Perception. 2nd. ed. Hampton Roads Publishing, Charlottesville, VA 2002

Radin D. (2000-a) Time-reversed human experience: experimental evidence and implications. 2000 Esalen draft, republished in the Journal of Nonlocality and Remote Mental Interactions, II (2) July 2003.


Radin D. (2000-b) Evidence for an anomalous anticipatory effect in the autonomic nervous system. http://www.boundaryinstitute.org/articles/presentiment99.pdf

Radin D (1997) Unconscious perception of future emotions: an experiment in presentiment. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 11 (2) 163-180

Stone, RB (1995) Cells caught in the act of communication. MISAHA Newsletter #11, 1995

R.B. Stone (1994) The Secret Life of Your Cells. Schiffer Publishing, Ltd.; Reprint edition, March 1994

Wackermann J, Seiter C, Keibel H, Walach H (2003) Correlations between brain electrical activities of two spatially separated human subjects. Neuroscience Letters 336:60-64


by Daniel J. Benor, www.WholisticHealingResearch.com

Problems that have yet to be formally studied

Enhancing recovery from burns, fractures, infections.

Clinical problems that have responded to healing

Replications of published studies is important. It firms up the evidence for the efficacy of healing by confirming that reported effects are replicable with different healers, in different clinical settings, under different investigators.

Healing has demonstrated effects in randomized controlled studies in humans on arthritis (swelling and limited motion in addition to pain), problems in cardiac intensive care units, hypertension, muscle fatigue, hemoglobin levels, AIDS, anxiety, pain, and depression. Highly significant effects have been found in electrodermal responses (skin resistance, which roughly correlates with anxiety and tension).

Effects of healing in animals

Enhancing wound healing, slowing the progress of malaria and cancer, waking mice selectively from anesthesia.

Effects of healing in plants, bacteria, and yeasts

Enhancing and retarding growth.

Effects of healing on cells in the laboratory

Protecting red blood cells from bursting when they are placed in dilute salt water (hemolysis)

Enzyme activity

Enhancing enzyme activity


Altering the winding of DNA chains


Experimenter effects, Super-ESP, and healing.

The most fascinating healing study I know is that of Jerry Solfvin: Psi expectancy effects in psychic healing studies with malarial mice, European Journal of Parapsychology 1982, 4(2), 160-197.

Solfvin set up a highly unusual, complex study of several experimental variables. He explored the effects of mental expectations of animal handlers' on the rates of illness in mice that were in their care. In addition, he studied the effects of expectations that healing would occur -- without the actual use of healers and without knowledge on the part of anyone during the experiment as to which mice were designated to be healed.

The manipulations in the experiment were of the expectations of the student assistants. All the mice were innoculated interperitoneally with 0.1 milliliter of 1:10 stabilate (babesia rhodaini), the rodent version of the malarial blood parasite. Each student was assigned 12 mice housed in a single cage and was told that half of them would be innoculated with babesia while the other half would receive a sterile injection. The students themselves randomized and marked their mice with either yellow (babesia) or black (non-babesia) markings to indicate which were which, thus this condition remained non-blind to them. In addition, the students were led to believe that half of each of these two groups would be receiving distant healing from a psychic healer, when in fact there was no such healer in the study. These expectations formed a balanced two-way analysis of variance that was fully randomized. The students were not aware of which mice were supposed to be healed and which not, these being randomly assigned to the healing and control conditions by the author.

This allowed evaluation of cross-correlations amongst the elements of malarial organisms and animal handler expectations of illness and healing. While all the mice had the same injected dose of malaria, the handlers believed the control group had been injected with sterile saline.

Randomization procedures were elaborate, so that the experimenter could not know which mice were assigned to which condition. Solfvin only saw the outsides of double-sealed, opaque envelopes (each containing the code number of a mouse). On each envelope there was only the designation of "malaria" or "control". He then divided each of these groups of envelopes (malaria and malaria-control) into two piles, one for "healing" and one for healing-controls. No healing was sent to any of the animals.

In Experiment 1, Solfvin had three handlers. Two were clearly sheep (believers in ESP) and one was clearly a goat (disbeliever in ESP) . The sheep produced random results. The goat produced significant results (p < 0.021) on the dimension of illness expectancy and a suggestive trend (p < .092) for healing expectancy, both in the direction opposite to that predicted by experimental hypothesis. That is, the results were strongly in the direction a goat would predict.

In Experiment 2. Solfvin had five handlers. "The babesia and non-babesia designations (used for inducing expectancies in handlers) were changed to high or low babesia." Again, all animals were actually injected with the same dose of malaria, but the handlers were unaware of this deception. The results were uniform across the five groups.

The results show a significant main effect for the healing expectancy factor (p < 0.05) and a marginal trend for the illness expectancy factor (p between 0.05 and 0.10). Both of these are in the direction of the induced expectancies.

This healing expectancy effect is definitely a parapsychological one in the sense that it cannot be entirely explained in terms of known sensory processes, since the target animals [for healing] were not known by anyone until the end of the study. We have therefore produced a paranormal healing effect, or something that resembles a healing effect, in a well controlled laboratory study which cannot be attributed to a specific psychic healer or healing treatment. It must therefore be attributable to something else and that something else may be operating in other psychic healing situations as well.

In experimental studies of psychic healing treatments the experimenters may have reason to expect positive results. The healer may have performed well in pilot or screening trials, may have brought an impressive anecdotal case history of successful healings, or may make a strong personal impression on one of the experimental staff members. The results of the current study, modelled after this situation, suggest that the expectation structure may be an important contributor to the results, regardless of what the healer does.

This is a key study for understanding possible errors of interpretation that might arise even in controlled studies. Mice in this study were all innoculated with the same dose of malarial parasites, yet in Experiment 1 a significant number became sicker than others, in line with the designated expectations. Similarly, in Experiment 2, a healer effect was demonstrated when no healer was involved. One must postulate that one (or more) of the experimenters or handlers could have been responsible for the significant healing effects. Solfvin points out that this need not be so. Differentials in the physical handling of mice in the various groups in line with handler expectations (perhaps augmented by clairsentient or precognitive perceptions of mouse group assignments) could have produced portions of the results.

Discussion: Healing effects were suggested, in line with the design and expectations surrounding this experiment. This was so even without the intervention of anyone designated as healer and without anyone knowing by sensory means which animals were assigned to healing and nonhealing groups.This study suggests that it is possible to scan one's environment using ESP and to influence it via mental intent. The mental intent does not have to be conscious. This is called Super-ESP.

The implications of this study are truly revolutionary. They indicate that psychic healing influences can be produced selectively in an experimental group of mice despite apparent totally controlled, double-blind conditions. If substantiated by repetitions under a variety of circumstances this will force science to re-evaluate one of its most valuable tools in research, the randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

Rupert Sheldrake speculates that experimenter effects (such as those in Solfvin's study) may be present in the hard sciences as well as in the biological sciences.

You may quote part or all of this article if you include the following credits and addresses:

Copyright © Daniel J. Benor, M.D. 1999

Reprinted with permission of the author, P.O. Box 502 Medford, NJ 08055

www.WholisticHealingResearch.com DB@WholisticHealingResearch.com

Another fascinating study of experimenter effects:

Wiseman, Richard/ Schlitz, Marilyn, Experimenter effects and the remote detection of staring, Journal of Parapsychology 1997, 61, 197-208.

Possible healing effects on genes, mutations, and evolution

Historical background:

In the early 1900s, Luther Burbank developed over 800 new varieties of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and trees. This was a time when the railroads opened broader horizons for farmers, and they sought produce that had improved keeping qualities so that they would last better on the longer journeys beyond local markets.

Burbank was able to produce plants with the required new qualities "to order." He planted thousands of seeds. When they sprouted, he would walk rapidly along the rows of seedlings and uproot most of them for discarding -- long before the qualities for which he was selecting (such as tougher fruit skins or slower ripening of fruit) were evident. The remaining specimens had the properties he was seeking.

The Food and Drug Administration sent an inspector to review Burbank's nursery business because they suspected him of fraud, but could find none. Neither could they understand how he achieved his remarkable successes.

While Burbank published many catalogues of his new plants, he never wrote about his methods.

Swami Yogananda visited and asked him how he did it. He said, "I have many senses that other people don't have, and can recognize qualities of plants with these senses." Yogananda persisted, asking how Burbank could produce a cactus without thorns. He responded, "I talked to the cactus, telling it that it didn't need its thorns because I would protect it."

Scientific background:

Healing can alter physical states and can act at a distance. There is a suggestion that healing can influence mutations in bacteria (Nash 1984). W.E. Cox (1957) found that in families with four girls, the fifth child was more likely to be a boy, suggesting that the wish for a boy might predispose towards this outcome. (The reverse expectation of more girls after four boys was not confirmed.) Rex Stanford suggests that psychokinesis (PK; mind influencing matter) acts well on systems that are in random flux. This has been substantiated through many studies of PK on random number generators that show highly significant effects.

When egg and sperm cells are formed (in a process called meiosis), the genes in each pair of chromosomes in their nucleii are randomly distributed. This forms a living analog of a random number generator.

Suggested research:

When a cross fertilization is made with a dominant and a recessive trait, such as black and white beans, a ratio of 3 black to 1 white progeny is produced. It appears likely that focused intent could produce more black or more white beans. (Cross-fertilizations for dominant and recessive traits in fruit flies, bacteria, or other organisms could provide results more quickly.)

Should such research provide positive results, it would bring us to an awareness and understanding of the role of consciousness in evolution.


Prior to the general acceptance of Darwinian evolution as the dominant theoretical model in Western science, Lamarckian theory proposed an intelligence that guided evolution. Various scientists have proposed that consciousness could be a factor that shapes evolution.

Stephen Gould points out that it is difficult to postulate how Darwinian evolutionn could produce physical forms that had not existed previously, where intermediary evolutionary steps would have no advantage for survival. For instance, how would an extra digit evolve merely by chance on the hand of a panda, essential for splitting bamboo, the principal item in its diet? How would feathers evolve for flight?

Rupert Sheldrake proposes that morphogenetic fields could serve this function. Individual members of a species could contribute their personal experiences to the collective consciousness of their species-specific morphogenetic field. The field could then be available to inform future members of information that is useful for survival, such as migration routes -- as well as through information on advantageous adaptations of body form for evolution into more successful physical forms.

The proposed experiment, in which mental influence could produce a shift in the numbers of particular genetically-determined forms, could provide direct evidence of such a process.

I have been sharing these observations with scientists for more than a dozen years but have never found anyone willing to run this study. I hope that a visitor to this site with access to the resources for running this study will begin this pioneering exploration.


Benor, Daniel J. The work of Luther Burbank and possible psi/healing effects on genes, mutations, and evolution

Benor, Daniel J., Lamarckian genetics: Theories from psi research and evidence from the work of Luther Burbank, Research in Parapsychology 1987, Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow 1988.

Cox, W.E.: The influence of 'applied psi' upon the sex of offspring, Journal of the Society for Psychical Research 1957, 39, 65-77.

Nash, Carroll B. Test of psychokinetic control of bacterial mutation, Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 1984, 78(2), 145-152.